> c) cannot be affected by the absorptions of photons. E = -27.2 +16.95 - 4.1 = - 14.35 eV which is the experimental value. ( May 2014) NCSR Demokritos (2002) My discovery of nuclear force and structure, NCSR Demokritos (2002) My discovery of nuclear force and structure. Because the hydrogen atom received an additional electron, it does not have an unpaired electron and thus is no longer a free radical. In 2008 I published in Ind J. Th. A hydrogen atom is made up of a nucleus with charge +1, and a single electron. These atoms are covalently bonded, and they share a single positive charge. ( H+ hī'drō-jen ī'on) A hydrogen atom minus its electron and therefore carrying a unit positive charge (i.e., a proton); in water, it combines with a water molecule to form the hydronium ion, H 3 O +. (2003). Here we show that readily accessible halogen and hydrogen bonding 1,2,3-triazole derivatives can efficiently mediate anion transport across lipid bilayer membranes with unusual anti-Hofmeister selectivity. Common Ions Common Cations Charge Formula 1+ H+ Li+ Na+ K+ Cs+ Ag+ 2+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Zn2+ Cd2+ 3+ Al3+ Name hydrogen Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012. That is, Einstein’s relativity which in general forbids greater velocities than the speed of light did much to retard the progress of  atomic and molecular physics. \(K_2SO_4\) A net negative charge ion is called an anion. The hydrogen anion is the dominant bound-free opacity source at visible and near-infrared wavelengths in the atmospheres of stars like the Sun and cooler (Mihalas 1978); its importance was first noted in the 1930s (Wildt 1939). The traditional description of the hydrogen ion, H +, alone is not correct.The proton (the hydrogen ion H +) actually cannot exist as such in water.Without the electron it only consists of the nucleus with a radius of perhaps 10 −14 m—approximately 4 decades smaller than an ion with electrons in orbit. Therefore, the only positively charged ion possible has charge +1. ( See my, In  the absence of a detailed knowledge of the electron-electron electromagnetic attraction F, at an interelectron separation R on the spinning electrons with mass M and charge e of opposite spin after the application of the Coulomb  and the Biot –Savart laws. Whereas in my discovery of the PHOTON -MATTER INTERACTION I showed that the absorption of photons mass and energy by electrons is responsible for the increase of the electron mass in accelerators leading to the velocity  υ < c. (See my HELIUM ATOM   in my new FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ). The total ground state energy thus becomes −14.359888 eV. – 1 An anion (pronounced ann-ion) is an atom or molecule that has a negative charge. The hydrogen anion, H , is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The stability of anion depends on the size of the atom and the location of electrons from the nucleus. Anions 1-acetate C 2 H 3 O 2-cyanide CN-amide NH 2-cyanate OCN-hydrogen carbonate fluoride F-(bicarbonate) HCO 3-hydride H- As a result the electrons under such vibrations seem to be indistinguishable particles, restricted between two potential barriers. Under this crisis of atomic physics and the later crisis in nuclear physics, due to the discovery of  the assumed uncharged neutron (1932), I prepared  in 2002 my paper “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” which contains also the electron-electron attraction of opposite spin in atomic orbitals. All anions are not adsorbed equally readily. Thus, in the absence of  such a vibration energy the ground state energy of an atom with Z protons and two electrons in the ground state (1s2)  according to the Bohr model should be given by. (2008 ) my paper “Spin-spin interactions….structures” showing that two electrons of opposite spin exert electromagnetic attraction Fem able to explain the electron configurations in atoms and molecular bonds. There is exactly the same number of electrons and protons in an atom. By Prof.Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. the charge of the TOTAL structure being named is specified, eg charge of 1- (1-), charge of 2- (2-) etc The list below gives the "hydrogen name" and the abbreviated hydrogen name for anions as … They explain the indistinguishability of electrons and give a vibration energy able for calculating the ground-state energies of many-electron atoms without using any perturbative  approximation. It can also take a positive charge as a cation. We will need two potassium ions to balance the charge on the sulfate ion, so the proper chemical formula is K 2 SO 4. hydroxide-OH hydrogen sulfide-HS cyanide-CN peroxide 2-2 O the –ate/ite system. Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions(1926) in the one-electron atoms  based on  the proton-electron interaction of electromagnetic laws, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the two-electron atoms (electron-electron attraction) even in the simplest cases of the Hydrogen anion and the Helium atom. This preview shows page 20 - 30 out of 38 pages.. Four polyatomic ions that do not use the –ate/ite system. ... or –1 (chloride anion) charge. It has been studied experimentally using particle accelerators (Bryant 1977 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBryant1977 (help)). The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. THE GROUND STATE ENERGY OF THE HYDROGEN ANION. In most such compounds the bonding between the hydrogen and its nearest neighbor is covalent. Its chemical formula is NH 4 +, which shows that each ion is made up of 1 nitrogen atom and 4 hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. This preview shows page 28 - 48 out of 48 pages.. A solution that contains 10-8 hydrogen ions is considered _____. Monovalent are such ions which can combine with the single hydrogen ion like chloride ions Cl-, bromide Br-, iodide I-. Most of the electrons in these negative ions come from the ionization of metals with low first ionization potentials, including the alkali metals and alkali earths. Whereas in my discovery of the, Therefore the enormous peripheral velocity in two electrons of opposite spin at short distances under the application of the Biot-Savart Law gives a magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion of the Coulomb law able to explain the energies of two-electron atoms and the bonds of  nuclei. HYDRIDE: THE NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ANION. Phys. In the same way the ground state energy of the Helium atom with Z = 2 having two electrons is. In my, which cannot allow such a pairing of electrons. For an anion to form, one or more electrons must be gained, typically pulled away from other atoms with a weaker affinity for them. The amount and direction of the charge is the ion's valence . Anions are attracted towards anode which is positively charged at the time of electrolysis. On the other hand I showed that the enormous peripheral velocity u  of the electron spin (u >> c) cannot be affected by the absorptions of photons. That is, Einstein’s relativity which in general forbids greater velocities than the speed of light did much to retard the progress of  atomic and molecular physics. In  the absence of a detailed knowledge of the electron-electron electromagnetic attraction Fem one observes a great confusion about the simplest atoms of Hydrogen anion and Helium atom. Note that in the presence of  an external magnetic field the electrons operate with S = 1  giving, which cannot allow such a pairing of electrons. 1. acidic 2. basic 3. neutral 4. polar • List the 6 kingdoms. For example, chloride ions Cl- , bromide Br- , iodide I-. For example, iron(II) has a 2+ charge; iron(III) a 3+ charge. So  to overcome this crisis we present here the electromagnetic attraction, at an interelectron separation R on the spinning electrons with mass M and charge e of opposite spin after the application of the Coulomb  and the Biot –Savart laws. An anion has more electrons than protons, consequently giving it a net negative charge. Polyatomic ions with a minus 2 charge are also common. I  also presented the paper at the16th Hellenic symposium on Nuclear Physics (2006) . Furthermore, hydrogen ions can also exist anions. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. Under this discovery the energy of the ground state energy of the negative hydrogen ion or hydrogen anion (atom with Z =1 having two electrons) is E = -27.2 +16.95 - 4.1 = - 14.35 eV which is the experimental value. The resulting compound carries a neutral electrical charge. The ion absorbs photons with energies in the range 0.75–4.0 eV, which ranges from the infrared into the visible spectrum (Rau 1996, Srinivasan 1999). Other common isotopes include deuterium and tritium. Such ions which hold the number of electrons than protons, they attain the negative charge. gen ion. This preview shows page 3 - 4 out of 4 pages.. Molecular Formula Cation (with charge) Anion (with charge) Name of Compound KHCO 3 BaCl 2 Fe(OH) 2 Ca(CH 3 CO 2) 2 Na 2 CO 3 Cation (with charge) Anion (with charge) Name of Compound KHCO 3 BaCl 2 Fe(OH) 2 Ca(CH 3 CO 2) 2 Na 2 CO 3 For example, in human blood, excess hydrogen ions (H +) bind to bicarbonate ions (HCO 3-) forming an equilibrium state with carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3). The binding energy of H− equals the binding energy of an extra electron to a hydrogen atom, called electron affinity of hydrogen. Th. Since the one electron of the positive helium ion behaves like the one electron of the ordinary hydrogen, then in the same way the two electrons of the helium atom behave like the two electrons of the negative hydrogen ion leading to the quantum mechanics of the two-electron orbitals. Salts are hygroscopic, or tend to pick up water.This water is called water of hydration. Unfortunately Heisenberg and Dirac in 1926 under the influence of the invalid Einstein’s relativity  abandoned the electromagnetic laws of the spinning electrons and introduced qualitative approaches of the so-called “exchange interaction”. 16th Hellenic Symposium on Nuclear Physics, University of Athens, May 26-27, 2006, SPIN-SPIN INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRONS AND ALSO OF NUCLEONS CREATE ATOMIC MOLECULAR AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURES. Their charge is zero. Whereas for two paired electrons of opposite spin at R < Ro   a motional EMF  produces vibrations of the two electrons. The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton. Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron.Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas addition of an electron gives an anion (right). Looking also the images of the negative hydrogen ion (hydrogen with two electros) on can observe the same confusion. This is the chemical structure of the thiosulfate anion. Such forces create two-electron orbitals able to account for the exclusion principle and the mechanism of covalent bonds. Anions are atoms or radicals (groups of atoms), that have gained electrons.Since they now have more electrons than protons, anions have a negative charge. Phys. The paper was presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society (2002) and published in Ind.J. ABSTRACT:  Fundamental interactions of spinning electrons at an interelectron separation less than 578.8 fm yield attractive electromagnetic forces with S=0 creating vibrations under a motional emf. Th. It is noted H . All ions have charge, and any charge may be positive or negative. Hydride is one hydrogen atom that has an extra electron. The Halogens are missing one electron in their last shell, so they very quickly absorb one electron and have a charge of -1. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. The capacity for holding anions increases with the increase in acidity. (2003). An obvious confusion is observed  in Google (images of the Helium atom), because in many cases the two electrons are placed far apart in the same orbital, while in other cases one sees the electrons placed in two different sub-orbitals so as to keep them as far apart as possible. On the other hand considerable charge distributions in nucleons as multiples of 2e/3 and -e/3 determined by the magnetic moments, interact for creating the nuclear structure with p-n bonds. Roman numeral notation indicates charge of ion when element commonly forms more than one ion. An ion having a positive valence is called a cation (from the Greek kata down), and an ion having a negative valence is called an anion (Greek ana up). Writing Formulas of Salts . In my FORCE AND STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS  one can see how I derived the equation (52), Fem  =  Fe - Fm =  K e2 / R2   -  ( K e2 / R4 )( 9 h2/16 π2 M 2 c2), So  for  Fe  =  Fm   one gets   Ro = 3h / 4π Μ c  =  0.5788 / 10 12   m, That is for R < Ro the electrons exert an attractive electromagnetic force Fem . Its existence was first proven theoretically by Hans Bethe in 1929 (Bethe 1929). Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. In other words, in the quantum mechanics, we may use the same image of the “Hydrogen atom-WIKIPEDIA” which shows the first orbital   s  with l = 0. (39)-Negative Because of uneven distribution of electrons, even nonpolar molecule can have _____ (charged/uncharged) regions? Since hydrogen atom has an unpaired electron in the 1s orbital, it can get another electron to the s orbital to complete the orbital and obtain the electron configuration of Helium (He). The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton. In the outer subshells of atoms the penetrating orbitals interact also as pair-pair systems and deform drastically the probability densities of the quantum mechanical electron clouds. In 1925 the discovery of the electron spin showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light ( u >> c ), which means that two electrons of opposite spin  at very short interelectron separations  exert stronger magnetic attraction Fm than the electric repulsion Fe. Hydrogen ion, strictly, the nucleus of a hydrogen atom separated from its accompanying electron. Color: White, Black, Pink, Blue, Purple Material: PC/PCTG/ABS Volume: 360ml Hydrogen Content: 900ppb ORP: -200-0mV Battery Capacity: 1200mAH Charge Time: About 3 Hours Use Times: 8 times of full charge The paper was presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society (2002) and published in Ind.J. Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions(1926) in the one-electron atoms  based on  the proton-electron interaction of electromagnetic laws, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the two-electron atoms (electron-electron attraction) even in the simplest cases of the Hydrogen anion and the Helium atom. For example, table salt, or sodium chloride, consists of the Na + cation bonded to the Cl-anion to form NaCl. The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. In 1925 the discovery of the electron spin showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light ( u >> c ), which means that two electrons of opposite spin  at very short interelectron separations  exert stronger magnetic attraction F, It is indeed unfortunate that the discovery of the electron spin met much opposition by physicists, including Pauli, who suggested his qualitative “exclusion principle”, which cannot be applied in the simplest nuclear structure (Deuteron). A Structure Found In The Left Lumbar Region Is The, Meteorologia Porto Previsão 15 Dias, Microsoft Office Logo Vector, Caramel Candy Recipe Condensed Milk, Caramel Candy Recipe Condensed Milk, Types Of Pasta With Pictures Pdf, Change Domain Windows 10, Dental Hygiene Concepts, Chinese Food Chalkstone Ave Providence, How Do Dogs Show Affection, As I Am Double Butter Cream Low Porosity Hair, Biomedical Scientist Salary Uk, Feather Reed Grass For Sale, " />

hydrogen anion charge

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A hydrogen bond is between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge and an electronegative atom with a partial _____ (positive/negative) charge. For example in  “Helium - WIKIPEDIA” (electron configuration) one sees that the two electrons of opposite spin occupy the same orbital but they are placed far apart, though the experiments showed that there is a strong tendency to pair off  electrons which also give zero magnetic field and are responsible for the covalent bonds in molecules. Such a dynamics of deformation removes the degeneracy and leads to the deviation from the Bohr shell scheme. It is indeed unfortunate that the discovery of the electron spin met much opposition by physicists, including Pauli, who suggested his qualitative “exclusion principle”, which cannot be applied in the simplest nuclear structure (Deuteron). Phys. hydrogen ions (H +) • As concentration increases, blood pH decreases, and O 2 dissociates more readily from hemoglobin The amount of oxygen released from … The lower the pH the greater is the adsorption. After the ionizations a detailed analysis  showed that the vibration energy  Ev  in eV is given by. Then it is indicated as H –. It is measured to be 0.754195(19) eV or 0.0277161(62) hartree (see Electron affinity (data page)). In chemistry, the hydride anion is hydrogen that has the formal oxidation state −1. You seem to be confused over terminology (not to worry - everyone gets confused on terminology to start with) so I assume that you are just starting to learn chemistry. It has no neutrons and a single proton. If carbonic acid were added to this system, some of it would be converted to bicarbonate and hydrogen ions. The hydrogen nucleus is made up of a particle carrying a unit positive electric charge, called a proton. E = 2(-13.6)Z2   because the two electrons behave like one particle. They’re charge-neutral. All atoms have no charge. > What is the electrical charge of a hydrogen atom? carbonate - CO 3 2-chromate - CrO 4 2-dichromate - Cr 2 O 7 2-hydrogen phosphate - HPO 4 2-peroxide - O 2 2-sulfate - SO 4 2-sulfite - SO 3 2-thiosulfate - S 2 O 3 2- These are monovalent anions, meaning they have a valency (combining capacity) with only one ion of hydrogen.Similarly there are bivalent anions, etc. So they behave like one particle forming two-electron orbitals. ( See my LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY ) . Anions can be monovalent or bivalent. Since the two electrons behave like one particle we apply the same Schrodinger equations as those of the one-electron atoms for the ground state energy. The isolated hydrogen ion, represented by the symbol H +, is therefore customarily used to represent Ions and Isotopes Hydrogen can take a negative charge and be an anion called a hydride. H− is unusual because, in its free form, it has no bound excited states, as was finally proven in 1977 (Hill 1977). E = (-27.2)4 + (16.95) 2  - 4.1 = -79 eV which is the experimental value. Unfortunately Heisenberg and Dirac in 1926 under the influence of the invalid Einstein’s relativity  abandoned the electromagnetic laws of the spinning electrons and introduced qualitative approaches of the so-called “exchange interaction”. Here you see my following Abstract. Todd Helmenstine. As a consequence this situation provides the physical basis for understanding the pairing of two electrons described qualitatively by the exclusion principle. H− also occurs in the Earth's ionosphere (Rau 1999), and can be produced in particle accelerators. It has one proton and two electrons, which makes it a negative ion written as H –. View CH 02 - Common Ions.pdf from CHEMISTRY 1234 at Ohio State University. Salts are compounds composed of cations bonded to anions. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). (principal quantum number n = 1,  l = 0), because the pair of two electrons in the negative hydrogen ion replaces the one electron of the ordinary hydrogen. Transmembrane ion transport by synthetic anionophores is typically achieved using polar hydrogen bonding anion receptors. However in the interior of atoms the large nuclear charge leads to a spherically symmetric potential with non interacting pairs for creating shells of degenerate states giving an accurate explanation of the X-ray lines. The process which ejects the electron from the ion is properly called photodetachment rather than photoionization because the result is a neutral atom (rather than an ion) and a free electron. The positive charge of colloids are due to addition of hydrogen (H +) in hydroxyl group (OH –) resulted in net positive charge (OH 2 +). The term hydride is probably most often used to describe compounds of hydrogen with other elements in which the hydrogen is in the formal −1 oxidation state. Ev = 16.95Z  - 4.1       where Z is the number of protons. hydroxide-OH hydrogen sulfide-HS cyanide-CN peroxide 2-2 O Such spin-spin interactions show that the concept of the untisymmetric wave function for fermions is inapplicable not only in the simple p-n systems but also in the LS coupling in which the electrons interact from different quantum states giving either S=0 or S=l. Under this crisis of atomic physics and the later crisis in nuclear physics, due to the discovery of  the assumed uncharged neutron (1932), I prepared  in 2002 my paper “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” which contains also the electron-electron attraction of opposite spin in atomic orbitals. hydrogen carbonate ion (bicarbonate ion) ... Potassium ions have a charge of 1+, while sulfate ions have a charge of 2−. Institute of Larissa Greece. Electrostatic attraction is the term used for opposing charges, which is a result of ionic bonds between atoms or molecules. Hydrogen-Rich Water or hydrogenated water contains active hydrogen ions that act as powerful antioxidants in your body. Whereas for two paired electrons of opposite spin at R < R, Thus, in the absence of  such a vibration energy the ground state energy of an atom with Z protons and two electrons in the ground state (1s, That is, for the electron configuration of the negative hydrogen ion (1s, EINSTEIN’S WRONG ASSUMPTIONS IN SPECIAL RELATIVITY, UNIFIED FORCES SOLVE THE CRISIS OF PHYSICS, LAWS AND EXPERIMENTS INVALIDATE FIELDS AND RELATIVITY, https://lefteris-kaliambos.wikia.org/wiki/HYDROGEN_ANION?oldid=5931. Protium is the most common isotope of hydrogen. Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBryant1977 (, "Hydride - PubChem Public Chemical Database", National Center for Biotechnology Information, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hydrogen_anion&oldid=979732055, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 September 2020, at 13:15. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. This + charge will attract anions (—). Therefore the enormous peripheral velocity in two electrons of opposite spin at short distances under the application of the Biot-Savart Law gives a magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion of the Coulomb law able to explain the energies of two-electron atoms and the bonds of  nuclei. Cations are abundant in seawater and hard water. That is, for the electron configuration of the negative hydrogen ion (1s2) we may use the same image of the electron configuration 1s1 of the “Hydrogen-WIKIPEDIA”  because in the same position is a pair of two electrons. An example of a hydride is the borohydride anion (BH−4). As a result the total energy in eV of the ground state will be, Under this discovery the energy of the ground state energy of the negative hydrogen ion or hydrogen anion (atom  with Z =1 having two electrons) is. On the other hand I showed that the enormous peripheral velocity u  of the electron spin (u >> c) cannot be affected by the absorptions of photons. E = -27.2 +16.95 - 4.1 = - 14.35 eV which is the experimental value. ( May 2014) NCSR Demokritos (2002) My discovery of nuclear force and structure, NCSR Demokritos (2002) My discovery of nuclear force and structure. Because the hydrogen atom received an additional electron, it does not have an unpaired electron and thus is no longer a free radical. In 2008 I published in Ind J. Th. A hydrogen atom is made up of a nucleus with charge +1, and a single electron. These atoms are covalently bonded, and they share a single positive charge. ( H+ hī'drō-jen ī'on) A hydrogen atom minus its electron and therefore carrying a unit positive charge (i.e., a proton); in water, it combines with a water molecule to form the hydronium ion, H 3 O +. (2003). Here we show that readily accessible halogen and hydrogen bonding 1,2,3-triazole derivatives can efficiently mediate anion transport across lipid bilayer membranes with unusual anti-Hofmeister selectivity. Common Ions Common Cations Charge Formula 1+ H+ Li+ Na+ K+ Cs+ Ag+ 2+ Mg2+ Ca2+ Sr2+ Ba2+ Zn2+ Cd2+ 3+ Al3+ Name hydrogen Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012. That is, Einstein’s relativity which in general forbids greater velocities than the speed of light did much to retard the progress of  atomic and molecular physics. \(K_2SO_4\) A net negative charge ion is called an anion. The hydrogen anion is the dominant bound-free opacity source at visible and near-infrared wavelengths in the atmospheres of stars like the Sun and cooler (Mihalas 1978); its importance was first noted in the 1930s (Wildt 1939). The traditional description of the hydrogen ion, H +, alone is not correct.The proton (the hydrogen ion H +) actually cannot exist as such in water.Without the electron it only consists of the nucleus with a radius of perhaps 10 −14 m—approximately 4 decades smaller than an ion with electrons in orbit. Therefore, the only positively charged ion possible has charge +1. ( See my, In  the absence of a detailed knowledge of the electron-electron electromagnetic attraction F, at an interelectron separation R on the spinning electrons with mass M and charge e of opposite spin after the application of the Coulomb  and the Biot –Savart laws. Whereas in my discovery of the PHOTON -MATTER INTERACTION I showed that the absorption of photons mass and energy by electrons is responsible for the increase of the electron mass in accelerators leading to the velocity  υ < c. (See my HELIUM ATOM   in my new FUNDAMENTAL PHYSICS CONCEPTS ). The total ground state energy thus becomes −14.359888 eV. – 1 An anion (pronounced ann-ion) is an atom or molecule that has a negative charge. The hydrogen anion, H , is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The stability of anion depends on the size of the atom and the location of electrons from the nucleus. Anions 1-acetate C 2 H 3 O 2-cyanide CN-amide NH 2-cyanate OCN-hydrogen carbonate fluoride F-(bicarbonate) HCO 3-hydride H- As a result the electrons under such vibrations seem to be indistinguishable particles, restricted between two potential barriers. Under this crisis of atomic physics and the later crisis in nuclear physics, due to the discovery of  the assumed uncharged neutron (1932), I prepared  in 2002 my paper “ Nuclear structure is governed by the fundamental laws of electromagnetism” which contains also the electron-electron attraction of opposite spin in atomic orbitals. All anions are not adsorbed equally readily. Thus, in the absence of  such a vibration energy the ground state energy of an atom with Z protons and two electrons in the ground state (1s2)  according to the Bohr model should be given by. (2008 ) my paper “Spin-spin interactions….structures” showing that two electrons of opposite spin exert electromagnetic attraction Fem able to explain the electron configurations in atoms and molecular bonds. There is exactly the same number of electrons and protons in an atom. By Prof.Lefteris Kaliambos (Λευτέρης Καλιαμπός) Τ.Ε. the charge of the TOTAL structure being named is specified, eg charge of 1- (1-), charge of 2- (2-) etc The list below gives the "hydrogen name" and the abbreviated hydrogen name for anions as … They explain the indistinguishability of electrons and give a vibration energy able for calculating the ground-state energies of many-electron atoms without using any perturbative  approximation. It can also take a positive charge as a cation. We will need two potassium ions to balance the charge on the sulfate ion, so the proper chemical formula is K 2 SO 4. hydroxide-OH hydrogen sulfide-HS cyanide-CN peroxide 2-2 O the –ate/ite system. Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions(1926) in the one-electron atoms  based on  the proton-electron interaction of electromagnetic laws, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the two-electron atoms (electron-electron attraction) even in the simplest cases of the Hydrogen anion and the Helium atom. This preview shows page 20 - 30 out of 38 pages.. Four polyatomic ions that do not use the –ate/ite system. ... or –1 (chloride anion) charge. It has been studied experimentally using particle accelerators (Bryant 1977 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBryant1977 (help)). The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. THE GROUND STATE ENERGY OF THE HYDROGEN ANION. In most such compounds the bonding between the hydrogen and its nearest neighbor is covalent. Its chemical formula is NH 4 +, which shows that each ion is made up of 1 nitrogen atom and 4 hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. This preview shows page 28 - 48 out of 48 pages.. A solution that contains 10-8 hydrogen ions is considered _____. Monovalent are such ions which can combine with the single hydrogen ion like chloride ions Cl-, bromide Br-, iodide I-. Most of the electrons in these negative ions come from the ionization of metals with low first ionization potentials, including the alkali metals and alkali earths. Whereas in my discovery of the, Therefore the enormous peripheral velocity in two electrons of opposite spin at short distances under the application of the Biot-Savart Law gives a magnetic attraction stronger than the electric repulsion of the Coulomb law able to explain the energies of two-electron atoms and the bonds of  nuclei. HYDRIDE: THE NEGATIVE HYDROGEN ANION. Phys. In the same way the ground state energy of the Helium atom with Z = 2 having two electrons is. In my, which cannot allow such a pairing of electrons. For an anion to form, one or more electrons must be gained, typically pulled away from other atoms with a weaker affinity for them. The amount and direction of the charge is the ion's valence . Anions are attracted towards anode which is positively charged at the time of electrolysis. On the other hand I showed that the enormous peripheral velocity u  of the electron spin (u >> c) cannot be affected by the absorptions of photons. That is, Einstein’s relativity which in general forbids greater velocities than the speed of light did much to retard the progress of  atomic and molecular physics. In  the absence of a detailed knowledge of the electron-electron electromagnetic attraction Fem one observes a great confusion about the simplest atoms of Hydrogen anion and Helium atom. Note that in the presence of  an external magnetic field the electrons operate with S = 1  giving, which cannot allow such a pairing of electrons. 1. acidic 2. basic 3. neutral 4. polar • List the 6 kingdoms. For example, chloride ions Cl- , bromide Br- , iodide I-. For example, iron(II) has a 2+ charge; iron(III) a 3+ charge. So  to overcome this crisis we present here the electromagnetic attraction, at an interelectron separation R on the spinning electrons with mass M and charge e of opposite spin after the application of the Coulomb  and the Biot –Savart laws. An anion has more electrons than protons, consequently giving it a net negative charge. Polyatomic ions with a minus 2 charge are also common. I  also presented the paper at the16th Hellenic symposium on Nuclear Physics (2006) . Furthermore, hydrogen ions can also exist anions. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. Under this discovery the energy of the ground state energy of the negative hydrogen ion or hydrogen anion (atom with Z =1 having two electrons) is E = -27.2 +16.95 - 4.1 = - 14.35 eV which is the experimental value. The resulting compound carries a neutral electrical charge. The ion absorbs photons with energies in the range 0.75–4.0 eV, which ranges from the infrared into the visible spectrum (Rau 1996, Srinivasan 1999). Other common isotopes include deuterium and tritium. Such ions which hold the number of electrons than protons, they attain the negative charge. gen ion. This preview shows page 3 - 4 out of 4 pages.. Molecular Formula Cation (with charge) Anion (with charge) Name of Compound KHCO 3 BaCl 2 Fe(OH) 2 Ca(CH 3 CO 2) 2 Na 2 CO 3 Cation (with charge) Anion (with charge) Name of Compound KHCO 3 BaCl 2 Fe(OH) 2 Ca(CH 3 CO 2) 2 Na 2 CO 3 For example, in human blood, excess hydrogen ions (H +) bind to bicarbonate ions (HCO 3-) forming an equilibrium state with carbonic acid (H 2 CO 3). The binding energy of H− equals the binding energy of an extra electron to a hydrogen atom, called electron affinity of hydrogen. Th. Since the one electron of the positive helium ion behaves like the one electron of the ordinary hydrogen, then in the same way the two electrons of the helium atom behave like the two electrons of the negative hydrogen ion leading to the quantum mechanics of the two-electron orbitals. Salts are hygroscopic, or tend to pick up water.This water is called water of hydration. Unfortunately Heisenberg and Dirac in 1926 under the influence of the invalid Einstein’s relativity  abandoned the electromagnetic laws of the spinning electrons and introduced qualitative approaches of the so-called “exchange interaction”. 16th Hellenic Symposium on Nuclear Physics, University of Athens, May 26-27, 2006, SPIN-SPIN INTERACTIONS OF ELECTRONS AND ALSO OF NUCLEONS CREATE ATOMIC MOLECULAR AND NUCLEAR STRUCTURES. Their charge is zero. Whereas for two paired electrons of opposite spin at R < Ro   a motional EMF  produces vibrations of the two electrons. The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton. Hydrogen atom (center) contains a single proton and a single electron.Removal of the electron gives a cation (left), whereas addition of an electron gives an anion (right). Looking also the images of the negative hydrogen ion (hydrogen with two electros) on can observe the same confusion. This is the chemical structure of the thiosulfate anion. Such forces create two-electron orbitals able to account for the exclusion principle and the mechanism of covalent bonds. Anions are atoms or radicals (groups of atoms), that have gained electrons.Since they now have more electrons than protons, anions have a negative charge. Phys. The paper was presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society (2002) and published in Ind.J. ABSTRACT:  Fundamental interactions of spinning electrons at an interelectron separation less than 578.8 fm yield attractive electromagnetic forces with S=0 creating vibrations under a motional emf. Th. It is noted H . All ions have charge, and any charge may be positive or negative. Hydride is one hydrogen atom that has an extra electron. The Halogens are missing one electron in their last shell, so they very quickly absorb one electron and have a charge of -1. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. The capacity for holding anions increases with the increase in acidity. (2003). An obvious confusion is observed  in Google (images of the Helium atom), because in many cases the two electrons are placed far apart in the same orbital, while in other cases one sees the electrons placed in two different sub-orbitals so as to keep them as far apart as possible. On the other hand considerable charge distributions in nucleons as multiples of 2e/3 and -e/3 determined by the magnetic moments, interact for creating the nuclear structure with p-n bonds. Roman numeral notation indicates charge of ion when element commonly forms more than one ion. An ion having a positive valence is called a cation (from the Greek kata down), and an ion having a negative valence is called an anion (Greek ana up). Writing Formulas of Salts . In my FORCE AND STRUCTURE OF NUCLEUS  one can see how I derived the equation (52), Fem  =  Fe - Fm =  K e2 / R2   -  ( K e2 / R4 )( 9 h2/16 π2 M 2 c2), So  for  Fe  =  Fm   one gets   Ro = 3h / 4π Μ c  =  0.5788 / 10 12   m, That is for R < Ro the electrons exert an attractive electromagnetic force Fem . Its existence was first proven theoretically by Hans Bethe in 1929 (Bethe 1929). Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. In other words, in the quantum mechanics, we may use the same image of the “Hydrogen atom-WIKIPEDIA” which shows the first orbital   s  with l = 0. (39)-Negative Because of uneven distribution of electrons, even nonpolar molecule can have _____ (charged/uncharged) regions? Since hydrogen atom has an unpaired electron in the 1s orbital, it can get another electron to the s orbital to complete the orbital and obtain the electron configuration of Helium (He). The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton. In the outer subshells of atoms the penetrating orbitals interact also as pair-pair systems and deform drastically the probability densities of the quantum mechanical electron clouds. In 1925 the discovery of the electron spin showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light ( u >> c ), which means that two electrons of opposite spin  at very short interelectron separations  exert stronger magnetic attraction Fm than the electric repulsion Fe. Hydrogen ion, strictly, the nucleus of a hydrogen atom separated from its accompanying electron. Color: White, Black, Pink, Blue, Purple Material: PC/PCTG/ABS Volume: 360ml Hydrogen Content: 900ppb ORP: -200-0mV Battery Capacity: 1200mAH Charge Time: About 3 Hours Use Times: 8 times of full charge The paper was presented at the 12th Symposium of the Hellenic Nuclear Physics Society (2002) and published in Ind.J. Despite the enormous success of the Bohr model (1913) and the Schrodinger equation in three dimensions(1926) in the one-electron atoms  based on  the proton-electron interaction of electromagnetic laws, neither was able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the two-electron atoms (electron-electron attraction) even in the simplest cases of the Hydrogen anion and the Helium atom. For example, table salt, or sodium chloride, consists of the Na + cation bonded to the Cl-anion to form NaCl. The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. In 1925 the discovery of the electron spin showed that the peripheral velocity of the electron spin is greater than the speed of light ( u >> c ), which means that two electrons of opposite spin  at very short interelectron separations  exert stronger magnetic attraction F, It is indeed unfortunate that the discovery of the electron spin met much opposition by physicists, including Pauli, who suggested his qualitative “exclusion principle”, which cannot be applied in the simplest nuclear structure (Deuteron).

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