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whale shark population decline

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Through underwater observations and photographs, the sex of 180 whale sharks was identified, 88% of which were male, and the majority of these males (53%) were considered sexually mature, with claspers (reproductive organs) extending beyond the pelvic fins and having a cauliflower appearance. The head is wide and flat with two small eyes at the front corners. A new scientific study by Large Marine Vertebrates Research Institute Philippines (LAMAVE) and the University of Victoria (Canada) reveals that overcrowding is a significant issue for Oslob whale shark watching tours. The expansion may have happened during the Holocene, when tropical species could expand their range due to sea‐level rise, eliminating dispersal barriers and increasing plankton productivity. Satellite tags deployed on individuals encountered in the bay have revealed connectivity to different sites in the Philippines and internationally to Malaysia. Environmental Management (2018).     The CMS COP 13 kickstarted on February 17 with pre-COP meeting held on February 15 and 16 setting the agenda of India. A recent study in the Philippines highlighted the movement of whale sharks between one site in Palawan, and Malaysia and Indonesia. Population structure and residency patterns of whale sharks, the movement of whale sharks between one site in Palawan, and Malaysia and Indonesia, The longer whale sharks spend in Oslob, the less their avoidance response to external stimuli such as responding to human touch and approaching boats.     Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) said whale sharks, the largest living fish in the world, are vanishing from the face of the earth due to factors like climate change, rampant fishing and ocean pollution.    However, a senior official from the Union Environment ministry said efforts were on to revive the number of whale sharks and if needed, the government will spend around Rs 2-3 crores annually for its conservation.    Whale sharks have been classified as endangered in the red list of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and are also called 'Gentle Giants' with maximum aggregation off the Gujarat coast.    Sajan John, marine expert from WTI, said these giants are mainly targeted for their meat but ocean pollution and warming were also affecting them.    "India needs to have a stronger dialogue with countries to protect this mega fauna which migrates from one country's coast to another and gets killed on the way.    "The population of these large and vulnerable aquatic animals which are deliberately targeted for meat, has declined by 63 per cent in the last over seven decades, also due to other factors like climate change, ocean pollution and fishing pressure," John said at the sidelines of The 13th Conference of Parties to the Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS COP 13) here.    WTI is working with the Gujarat government to rescue whale sharks which get stuck in fishing nets along its coast.    John said fishing of whale sharks is also done to collect and trade its fins. It appeared that the whale sharks were using the atolls of Tubbataha Reefs as a navigational reference. 22:61-77, Photo-ID and telemetry highlight a global whale shark hotspot in Palawan, Philippines. Getting the most out of citizen science for endangered species such as whale shark. These findings led to the up-listing of the species to 'Endangered' under the IUCN Red List in 2016. After eight years of data collection, stakeholders’ meetings, trainings and workshops at the local, regional and national level, and several scientific studies published in international journals, in light of the lack of significant changes and the unwillingness to shift away from unsustainable tourism and management practices by the local and regional stakeholders, LAMAVE decided to place the work in Oslob on hold. Ziegler, J.A., Silberg, J.N., Araujo, G., Labaja, J., Ponzo, A., Rollins, R., & Dearden, P. Tourism Management 68 (2018) 264-274, Applying the precautionary principle when feeding an endangered species for marine tourism, Ziegler, J.A, Silberg, J.N, Araujo, G., Labaja, J., Ponzo, A., Rollins, R., Dearden, P. Tourism Management 72 (2019) 155-158, Using long-term integrated research programs to improve whale shark tourism at Oslob, Philippines. Many individuals exihbit scars and signs of recent and old fishery interactions. TSSC recommends that the list referred to in section 178 of the EPBC Act be amended by including in the list of vulnerable species: Rhincodon typus (Whale shark) Araujo, G., Rohner, C. A., Labaja, J., Conales, S. J., Snow, S.J., Murray, R., Pierce, S.J., & Ponzo, A. PeerJ 6:e5231; (2018), A guilty pleasure: Tourist perspectives on the ethics of feeding whale sharks in Oslob, Philippines. Advised and supported the municipalities of Pinutyan and Liloan to draft and pass local ordinances to regulate and manage the tourism interactions in Sogod Bay. Working with the Local Government Unit, the Butanding Interaction Officers (BIO’s), the Butanding Boat Operators Association and WWF-Philippines, our team is assessing the status of the population of whale sharks that aggregate seasonally between November and May in the bay. Whale Sharks GLOBAL TRENDS SHOW WHALE SHARK POPULATIONS ARE DECLINING. 193. The work will resume only if substantial improvement will be implemented in the management of the activities in the waters of Tan-awan. Wong, C.W.M., Conti-Jerpe, I., Raymundo, L.J., Dingle, C., Araujo, G., Ponzo, A., & Baker, D.M. The global population of the whale shark has decreased more than 50% in the last 75 years, resulting in its listing on the IUCN Red List as Endangered globally. We also study their ecology through their movement patterns and distribution, and use our research findings to lobby on how we can further protect the species in the country and in the Southeast Asian region. Feeding the world’s largest fish: highly variable whale shark residency patterns at a provisioning site in the Philippines. In comparison, the modelled whale shark population estimate (2,837 sharks ± 1,243.9) for the Arabian Gulf was similar to our study, although the proportion of the population sampled was far smaller (15%) during the four years of the study . The growing trade in shark fins often used to make an expensive Asian souphas become a serious threat to many shark species. A long-term continuous record (4436 sightings) from a large aggregation (300–500 resident individuals) of whale sharks at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia shows that mean shark length declined linearly by nearly 2.0 m and relative abundance measured from ecotourism sightings (corrected for variation in search effort and environmental stochasticity) has fallen by approximately 40% over the last decade. This harnesses the uniqueness of the whale shark's spot pattern, and with the aid of star-mapping software, we can 'match' whale sharks between areas. Whale shark tourism activities have emerged from Lila and Baclayon, Bohol where whale sharks are or were provisioned to facilitate tourism interactions. LAMAVE’s position on emerging whale shark tourism in Bohol. Working with the Local Government Unit of Puerto Princesa and the Palawan Council for Sustainable Development. A study recently published in Animal Microbiome outlines important first steps in understanding epidermal microbial communities in beluga whales, as well as their role in beluga health. Araujo, G., Ismail, A.R., McCann, C., McCann, D., Legaspi, C.G., Snow, S., Labaja, J., Manjaji-Matsumoto, M., & Ponzo, A. Working with the Tubbataha Management Office, we began studying whale sharks in Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park (TRNP) in 2015, initially through citizen science submissions from the liveaboards frequenting the park. The significant population expansion we found was indicated by both microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA. Description. It is well known that overexploitation by the whaling industry led to serious declines in many of the world’s populations of whales, although thankfully no species was brought to extinction and many are now in the process of recovering, although not all.

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