5 g/cm, teeth deformity, hardening of bones and stiff and painful joints (skeletal fluorosis). Excess nitrate in drinking water reacts with. The Protocol prohibits incineration of wastes at sea (permitted by the 1972 convention but prohibited under the 1993 amendments). Sediments and nutrients are deposited in the buffer zones instead of deposition in water (. Over 6 lakh users. ... UPSC 2016 Prelims Key with Explanation !!! Domestic and hospital sewage contain many undesirable pathogenic microorganisms. This can reduce oxygen concentrations to below sustainable levels. 8 (Next to Croma Store), e-CLASSROOM LEARNING PROGRAM (e-CLP) 2021. It also creates an innovative legal regime for controlling mineral resource exploitation in deep seabed areas beyond national jurisdiction, through an. Oceans are the ultimate sink of all natural and manmade pollutants. For the scheme to be effective, it is thought that a sustained effort would be required from a fleet of vessels covering most of the ocean. Many columns are written on uranium mining and its ill-effects. Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com. ; Key takeaways They are major producers of oxygen and food for many of the animals that live in these waters. It is to be noted that dumping of low-level radioactive wastes and industrial wastes as well as incineration of wastes were earlier permitted by the Convention. The most common cause of oil spill is leakage during marine transport and leakage from underground storage tanks. i.e. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a slightly better mode used to measure pollution load in the water. Phytoplankton Biomass in Bay of Bengal. ‘Dumping’ here does not cover wastes derived from the exploration and exploitation of sea-bed mineral resources. This bloom did not contain diatoms because the site was depleted in silicic acid, an essential nutrient for diatom growth ... LOHAFEX – UPSC … A large phytoplankton bloom was triggered. A stand-alone species being mentioned in the news for the first time find their way into the prelims. NAAMES research challenges traditional ideas about bloom dynamics and species succession. High level of nitrates may form carcinogens and can accelerate eutrophication in surface waters. These zones usually occur 200-800 meters (in the saltwater layer) below the surface. Ganapati Circle, Chandra Layout The phytoplankton is largely dependent on light, temperature and nutrients. There are four main types of inputs of pollution into the ocean: Direct discharge of waste into the oceans such as rivers This condition is known asÂ. It is used as a preservative to preserve human organs. In addition, four regions have been identified as bloom hotspots viz. Water having DO content below 8.0 mg/L may be considered as contaminated. They phased out the dumping of industrial wastes by 1995 and called for an end to incineration of industrial wastes at sea. The sewerage and garbage of coastal cities are also dumped into the sea. A team of scientists from the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) have discovered a way to measure the quantity of chlorophyll-a that indicates abundance of. [New Batch] IASbaba’s Courses- UPSC 2021 : e-CLP, ILP, AIPTS, TLP Connect- ADMISSIONS OPEN! Many of the pesticides are non-degradable, and their residues have a long life. Most algal blooms are not harmful, but some produce toxins. Fertilizers contain major plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Googling didn’t give me any authentic source that called formaldehyde a water pollutant. A 900 square kilometres (350 sq mi) portion of the southwest Atlantic was fertilized with iron sulfate. UPSC Answer Key 2019; IAS Coaching. The reason the blooms occur in the spring is due to the sun warming the water, this creates a layer of warm water on the surface with cold water deeper down. These metals can be toxic and carcinogenic. ə ˈ p l æ ŋ k t ən,-t ɒ n /) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton (cf. Thus, N. Scintillans acts as both a plant and an animal. The changing approach, keeping in view the need of the times, led to the adoption of the 1996 Protocol on November 7, 1996. Algal Bloom An algal bloom or algae bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is often recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments. The 1996 Protocol is much more restrictive as compared to the 1972 Convention that allowed dumping provided certain conditions were satisfied. Likewise, if large portions of the algal bloom die off at once, bacteria will start to consume oxygen in order to decompose the dead algae. Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III – Biodiversity. 2. 8) Tag: Phytoplankton Bloom Phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. certain phytoplankton species to bloom. Domestic and hospital sewage contain many undesirable pathogenic microorganisms, and its disposal into water without proper treatment may cause an outbreak of serious diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, etc. It finds some application in textile, resigns and wood industry. In India at many places, the groundwater is threatened with contamination due to seepage from industrial and municipal wastes and effluents, sewage channels and agricultural runoff. Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems, Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions. (a) and (b) eliminated. But the unicellular phytoplankton that live inside it can photosynthesise, turning sunlight into energy. Birds and sea mammals that consume dead fishes and plankton die due to poisoning. The easiest option is 3) Fluoride. They are tiny microscopic floating plants found in water bodies. All rights reserved |, If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 2 Years,” on 01/01/2020, then you will be able to download the, Irrespective of the package you choose, Current Affairs of Geography, Environment, Sci & Tech and Indian Agriculture are available from, Current Affairs of Art and Culture and Economy Basic Terms are available from, Once the payment is made, you need to log in to the, Effects of Water Pollution on Human Health, Effects of Water Pollution on the Environment, Effects of Water Pollution on Aquatic Ecosystem, The United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, Water Pollution: Causes & Effects, Eutrophication, Algal Blooms (this post), Water Pollution Control Measures: Bio-Toilets, Bioremediation (next post). Sorbitol (glucitol) is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolises slowly. Dark blue regions indicate overly fertile water that may give rise to dead zones. Presence of organic and inorganic wastes in water decreases the dissolved oxygen content of the water. Much of it ended up flowing into the Pacific Ocean, creating plumes of acidic , glassy steam in the process. Click to download our app. 1 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 1 Year from the date of purchase. Nest easiest option is Uranium. There were two peaks of chlorophyll-a — the primary peak occurred during the pre-southwest monsoon due to the recurrent phytoplankton bloom in the coastal water and the secondary peak occurred during the end of the southwest monsoon, spreading to far offshore areas. The Convention has a global character and is aimed at international control and putting an end to marine pollution. The primary consumers like small fish are killed due to oxygen deprivation caused by algal blooms. One of the largest dead zones forms in the. They cause Eutrophication, ocean acidification etc. Death of primary consumers adversely affects the, The new anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen) created to promote the growth of bacteria such asÂ, Water temperature has also been related to the occurrence of algal blooms, with unusuallyÂ, Algal blooms can be any colours, but the most common ones are red or brown. Red circles show the size and location of dead zones in 2010. Plankton bloom: Plankton bloom was reported when the density of plankton would be more than 1,00,000 cells per m3. Methaemoglobin is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein haemoglobin. The Protocol states that “the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution”. Wastes from poultry farms, piggeries and slaughterhouses etc. 4.0 mg/L is considered to be highly polluted. This process is known as naturalÂ, Similar nutrient enrichment of lakes at an accelerated rate is caused by human activities and the consequent ageing phenomenon is known asÂ, On the basis of their nutrient content, lakes are categorized as, A vast majority of lakes in India are either, Eutrophic water body: it is a body of water rich in nutrients and so supporting a dense plant population, the decomposition of which kills animal life by, Eutrophication is the response to the addition of nutrients such asÂ, Phytoplankton (algae and blue-green bacteria) thrive on the excess nutrients and their population explosion covers almost entire surface layer. Ottolenghi Baked Orzo, Regirock Catch Rate Sword And Shield, Pin Cherry Leaf Identification, Cookie Crumble Paint, Sweeper Jig Mold, Bleu Burger Near Me, " />

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Significance of Phytoplanktons: (1) They contribute more than half of the oxygen in the environment; (2) They reduce global warming by absorbing human-induced carbon dioxide; (3) They also serve as the base of the ocean food chain; (4) They are important bio indicators regulating life in oceans; (5) Their abundance determines the overall health of the ocean ecosystem. Study of phytoplankton biomass is done by analyzing chlorophyll-a. Findings from three deployments have already confirmed a distinct shift in the annual cycle of the phytoplankton bloom and researchers have noted a clear lack of larger-sized plankton during the peak of the bloom. So, (a) also can be elevated. Phytoplankton blooms are prominent features of biological variability in shallow coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers. UPSC Question Paper 2019. Water pollution by organic wastes is measured in terms of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD). E. huxleyi is an abundant species of coccolithophore. From UPSC perspective, the following things are important : ... INCOIS-ABIS will provide near-real-time information on spatio-temporal occurrence and spread of phytoplankton blooms over the North Indian Ocean. Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III – Biodiversity. ə ˌ p l æ ŋ k t ən, ˈ z uː (ə)-, ˈ z oʊ oʊ-/, / ˌ z oʊ. Required fields are marked *, Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com. In India and Bangladesh (Ganges Delta), millions of people are exposed to groundwater contaminated with high levels of arsenic, a highly toxic and dangerous pollutant. On Sept. 23, 2015, the weather was adequate for the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite to acquire this view of a phytoplankton bloom in the North Atlantic. 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Micro-organisms involved in biodegradation of organic matter in sewage waste consume a lot of oxygen and make water oxygen deficient killing fish and other aquatic creatures. Excess fluoride in drinking water causesÂ, Pain in bones and joint and outward bending of legs from the knees is called. a) North Eastern Arabian Sea. Agricultural runoff contains dissolved salts such as nitrates, phosphates, ammoniaand other nutrients, and toxic metal ions and organic compounds. Methaemoglobin cannot bind oxygen, unlike oxyhaemoglobin. As animal feeds usually have a high fish meal or fish oil content, toxins can be found in consumed food items obtained from livestock and animal husbandry. It produces a shell composed of highly reflective calcium carbonate. The Protocol, which became effective in 2006, replaces the 1972 Convention. Fluorosis is a common problem in several states of the country due to the intake of high fluoride content water. This is, Unlike terrestrial organisms, aquatic organisms are adapted to a uniform steady temperature of the, One of the best methods of reducing thermal pollution is to store the hot water in cooling ponds, allow the water to cool before releasing into any receiving water body. The mechanisms that trigger blooms have been studied for decades, but are still keenly debated, due in part to a lack of data on phytoplankton stocks in winter and early spring. Generally phytoplankton (plankton that use photosynthesis like plants) need nutrients and light to grow at very high rates. The spring bloom dominates the annual cycle of phytoplankton abundance in large regions of the world oceans. November 15th, 2015 Feedback Requested – GS I initiative. Apart from phytoplankton bloom contributing to this increase of chlorophyll-a in nearshore waters, the study found physical forces such as upwelling, wind-induced vertical mixing, convective overturn and local circulation pattern influenced the peaks by supplying dissolved chemical input from various sources including river / terrigenous runoff. DO content of water is important for the survival of aquatic organisms. Adopted in 2006, the amendments were enforced in 2007. This image shows a colorful bloom of phytoplankton in the Black Sea on June 4, 2008, along the southern coast near the Turkish cities of Sinop and Samsun. These blooms are commonly referred to asÂ, Eventually, the water body is reduced into marsh whose plant community isÂ, Algal Blooms restrict the penetration of sunlight resulting in the. A phytoplankton bloom has been defined as a "high concentration of phytoplankton in an area, caused by increased reproduction; [this] often produces discoloration of the water" (Garrison, 2005). UNCLOS can hold states liable for damage caused by violation of their international obligations to combat pollution of the seas. Reduction in nitrogen emission from vehicles and power plants. The Protocol prohibits the Contracting Parties from dumping “wastes or any other matter with the exception of those listed in Annex 1”. Hot waters discharged from industries, when added to water bodies, lowers its DO content. The amendments have created a basis in international environment law to, It is part of the measures being considered to address climate change and ocean acidification like developing low carbon energy forms especially for sources of enormous CO. UNCLOS establishes general obligations for safeguarding the marine environment and protecting freedom of scientific research on the high seas. August 8th, 2016 GS I Initiative. To curb marine pollution and regulate the use of the world’s oceans by individual States, the nations of the world have come together to form two major conventions: An inter-governmental conference on the Convention on the Dumping of Wastes at Sea met in London in November 1972 to adopt this instrument, the. : (1) Increase in phytoplanktons; (2) Physical forces such as upwelling, wind-induced vertical mixing, convective overturn and chemicals from various sources including river runoff. Landmark: Just 50m from Karol Bagh Metro Station, GATE No. Zooplankton (/ ˈ z oʊ. A number of factors like surface turbulence, photosynthetic activity, O. The compounds of lead cause anaemia, headache, loss of muscle power and bluish line around the gum. Ocean fertilization, which some scientists refer to as bio-geoengineering, would involve dissolving iron or nitrates into the surface waters of specific ocean regions to promote the growth of phytoplankton where primary productivity is low. Another set of amendments adopted at the same time related to introduction of new procedures for dispute settlement. A team of scientists from the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) have discovered a way to measure the quantity of chlorophyll-a that indicates abundance of phytoplanktons in the Bay of Bengal in real-time. In contrast, non-point sources include discharge of pollutants from diffused sources or from a larger area such as runoff from agricultural fields, grazing lands, construction sites, abandoned mines and pits, etc. They help their host cell survive even when food was scarce. In this satellite image, a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi, a single-celled phytoplankton about 1/10th the size of a human hair, has turned the water of Hardangerfjord, Norway a turquoise color on May 30, 2020. Polluted water reduces Dissolved Oxygen (DO) content, thereby, eliminates sensitive organisms like plankton, molluscs and fish etc. 2 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 2 Years from the date of purchase. November 13th, 2015 Daily Debate- Anti defection Law- Defects with in and with out . Volcanic eruption set off a phytoplankton bloom The eruption last year of the Kilauea volcano in Hawaii produced the equivalent of 320,000 Olympic-size swimming pools of lava . The Contracting Parties must ensure that the Protocol does not simply result in pollution being transferred from one part of the environment to another. ; The term algae encompasses many types of aquatic photosynthetic organisms, both macroscopic, multicellular organisms like seaweed and microscopic, unicellular … One stop destination for UPSC, IAS and Banking exams preparations. Black Sea Phytoplankton Bloom. Seepage of industrial and mine discharges, fly ash ponds of thermal power plants can lead to arsenic in groundwater. 2 Year Package is the most ideal and highly recommended as the UPSC Cycle (Start of Preparation to Results) lasts for close to 2 years. Discharge of hot water may increase the temperature of the receiving water by 10 to 15 °C above the ambient water temperature. Black dots indicate dead zones of unknown size. Presence of large amounts of nutrients in water results inÂ, A few toxic substances, often present in industrial wastewaters, can undergo biological magnification (Biomagnification) in the aquatic. Over periods spanning millennia, ageing occurs as the lakes accumulate mineral and organic matter and gradually, get filled up. The nutrient-enrichment of the lakes promotes the growth of algae, aquatic plants and various fauna. A number of species may be able to enter such a loophole at that point in time and space but the best equipped phytoplankton species starts to bloom, consuming nutrients and perhaps releasing allelopathic chemicals inhibiting the growth of competitors (Fistarol et al., 2003, 2004). The definition of dumping under the Convention relates to deliberate disposal at sea of wastes or other materials from vessels, aircraft, platforms and other man-made structures. 1B, Second Floor,Pusa Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi - 110005 (Beside Karol Bagh Metro Station Gate No. So, (b) can be eliminated. Excess fertilisers may reach the groundwater by leaching or may be mixed with surface water. Excess fertilisers may reach the groundwater by leaching or may be mix… An oil spill could occur during offshore oil production as well. Water pollution is the addition/presence of undesirable substances to/in water such as organic, inorganic, biological, radiological, heat, which degrades the quality of water so that it becomes unfit for use’. Learn everyday with Experts!! July 22, 2020 August 7, 2020. Select the correct answer using the codes given below. The 1978 amendment dealt with the incineration of wastes at sea. for which the concern is mainly physical impact. Phytoplankton bloom in the Arabian Sea during both summer [Brock et al., 1991] and winter [Banse and McClain, 1986] monsoons have been studied but the BoB still remains largely unexplored. Nuclear accidents near water bodies or during natural calamities like tsunami and earthquakes pose the risk of radiation leakage (radiation exposure) into water bodies. They cause havoc by their excessive growth leading to stagnation of polluted water. Pesticides include insecticides, fungicides, herbicides, etc. Most of the time the highest bloom is the spring bloom so between March and May.What causes these blooms of phytoplankton is the supply of light and nutrients. Discharge of wastewater from industries like petroleum, paper manufacturing, metal extraction and processing, chemical manufacturing, etc., that often contain toxic substances, notably, Agricultural runoff contains dissolved salts such asÂ, Fertilizers contain major plant nutrients such asÂ. It is a dominant pigment found in phytoplankton cells. Sewage water includes discharges from houses and other establishments. Formaldehyde is more known than sorbitol. When environmental conditions are favourable for their development, these cells may multiply rapidly and form high numbers of cells, and this is called an algal bloom. Marine pollution refers to the emptying of chemicals into the ocean and its harmful effects. (c) and (d) remains. 1996 Protocol calls for appropriate preventive measures to be taken when wastes thrown into the sea are likely to cause harm “even when there is no conclusive evidence to prove a cause relation between inputs and their effects.”. They contain a wide range of chemicals such asÂ. The knowledge of either “Sorbitol” or “Formaldehyde” will tell us the answer. Read Editorial analysis and Current affairs notes daily in pointwise format. Water Pollution: Causes & Effects, Eutrophication, Algal Blooms, Controlling Air Pollution: Bharat Stage VI, National Air Quality Index, Water Pollution Control Measures: Bio-Toilets, Bioremediation, defined as elements with density > 5 g/cm, teeth deformity, hardening of bones and stiff and painful joints (skeletal fluorosis). Excess nitrate in drinking water reacts with. The Protocol prohibits incineration of wastes at sea (permitted by the 1972 convention but prohibited under the 1993 amendments). Sediments and nutrients are deposited in the buffer zones instead of deposition in water (. Over 6 lakh users. ... UPSC 2016 Prelims Key with Explanation !!! Domestic and hospital sewage contain many undesirable pathogenic microorganisms. This can reduce oxygen concentrations to below sustainable levels. 8 (Next to Croma Store), e-CLASSROOM LEARNING PROGRAM (e-CLP) 2021. It also creates an innovative legal regime for controlling mineral resource exploitation in deep seabed areas beyond national jurisdiction, through an. Oceans are the ultimate sink of all natural and manmade pollutants. For the scheme to be effective, it is thought that a sustained effort would be required from a fleet of vessels covering most of the ocean. Many columns are written on uranium mining and its ill-effects. Copyright © 2016-20 Pmfias.com. ; Key takeaways They are major producers of oxygen and food for many of the animals that live in these waters. It is to be noted that dumping of low-level radioactive wastes and industrial wastes as well as incineration of wastes were earlier permitted by the Convention. The most common cause of oil spill is leakage during marine transport and leakage from underground storage tanks. i.e. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a slightly better mode used to measure pollution load in the water. Phytoplankton Biomass in Bay of Bengal. ‘Dumping’ here does not cover wastes derived from the exploration and exploitation of sea-bed mineral resources. This bloom did not contain diatoms because the site was depleted in silicic acid, an essential nutrient for diatom growth ... LOHAFEX – UPSC … A large phytoplankton bloom was triggered. A stand-alone species being mentioned in the news for the first time find their way into the prelims. NAAMES research challenges traditional ideas about bloom dynamics and species succession. High level of nitrates may form carcinogens and can accelerate eutrophication in surface waters. These zones usually occur 200-800 meters (in the saltwater layer) below the surface. Ganapati Circle, Chandra Layout The phytoplankton is largely dependent on light, temperature and nutrients. There are four main types of inputs of pollution into the ocean: Direct discharge of waste into the oceans such as rivers This condition is known asÂ. It is used as a preservative to preserve human organs. In addition, four regions have been identified as bloom hotspots viz. Water having DO content below 8.0 mg/L may be considered as contaminated. They phased out the dumping of industrial wastes by 1995 and called for an end to incineration of industrial wastes at sea. The sewerage and garbage of coastal cities are also dumped into the sea. A team of scientists from the Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS) have discovered a way to measure the quantity of chlorophyll-a that indicates abundance of. [New Batch] IASbaba’s Courses- UPSC 2021 : e-CLP, ILP, AIPTS, TLP Connect- ADMISSIONS OPEN! Many of the pesticides are non-degradable, and their residues have a long life. Most algal blooms are not harmful, but some produce toxins. Fertilizers contain major plant nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Googling didn’t give me any authentic source that called formaldehyde a water pollutant. A 900 square kilometres (350 sq mi) portion of the southwest Atlantic was fertilized with iron sulfate. UPSC Answer Key 2019; IAS Coaching. The reason the blooms occur in the spring is due to the sun warming the water, this creates a layer of warm water on the surface with cold water deeper down. These metals can be toxic and carcinogenic. ə ˈ p l æ ŋ k t ən,-t ɒ n /) are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton (cf. Thus, N. Scintillans acts as both a plant and an animal. The changing approach, keeping in view the need of the times, led to the adoption of the 1996 Protocol on November 7, 1996. Algal Bloom An algal bloom or algae bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is often recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments. The 1996 Protocol is much more restrictive as compared to the 1972 Convention that allowed dumping provided certain conditions were satisfied. Likewise, if large portions of the algal bloom die off at once, bacteria will start to consume oxygen in order to decompose the dead algae. Part of: GS Prelims and GS-III – Biodiversity. 2. 8) Tag: Phytoplankton Bloom Phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean. certain phytoplankton species to bloom. Domestic and hospital sewage contain many undesirable pathogenic microorganisms, and its disposal into water without proper treatment may cause an outbreak of serious diseases, such as typhoid, cholera, etc. It finds some application in textile, resigns and wood industry. In India at many places, the groundwater is threatened with contamination due to seepage from industrial and municipal wastes and effluents, sewage channels and agricultural runoff. Computing oxygen levels in forest ecosystems, Assessing oxygen levels in high altitude regions. (a) and (b) eliminated. But the unicellular phytoplankton that live inside it can photosynthesise, turning sunlight into energy. Birds and sea mammals that consume dead fishes and plankton die due to poisoning. The easiest option is 3) Fluoride. They are tiny microscopic floating plants found in water bodies. All rights reserved |, If you purchase the notes with “Download Validity == 2 Years,” on 01/01/2020, then you will be able to download the, Irrespective of the package you choose, Current Affairs of Geography, Environment, Sci & Tech and Indian Agriculture are available from, Current Affairs of Art and Culture and Economy Basic Terms are available from, Once the payment is made, you need to log in to the, Effects of Water Pollution on Human Health, Effects of Water Pollution on the Environment, Effects of Water Pollution on Aquatic Ecosystem, The United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea, Water Pollution: Causes & Effects, Eutrophication, Algal Blooms (this post), Water Pollution Control Measures: Bio-Toilets, Bioremediation (next post). Sorbitol (glucitol) is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolises slowly. Dark blue regions indicate overly fertile water that may give rise to dead zones. Presence of organic and inorganic wastes in water decreases the dissolved oxygen content of the water. Much of it ended up flowing into the Pacific Ocean, creating plumes of acidic , glassy steam in the process. Click to download our app. 1 Year Validity == Validity of the Download links (both Static & Current Affairs) is 1 Year from the date of purchase. Nest easiest option is Uranium. There were two peaks of chlorophyll-a — the primary peak occurred during the pre-southwest monsoon due to the recurrent phytoplankton bloom in the coastal water and the secondary peak occurred during the end of the southwest monsoon, spreading to far offshore areas. The Convention has a global character and is aimed at international control and putting an end to marine pollution. The primary consumers like small fish are killed due to oxygen deprivation caused by algal blooms. One of the largest dead zones forms in the. They cause Eutrophication, ocean acidification etc. Death of primary consumers adversely affects the, The new anaerobic conditions (absence of oxygen) created to promote the growth of bacteria such asÂ, Water temperature has also been related to the occurrence of algal blooms, with unusuallyÂ, Algal blooms can be any colours, but the most common ones are red or brown. Red circles show the size and location of dead zones in 2010. Plankton bloom: Plankton bloom was reported when the density of plankton would be more than 1,00,000 cells per m3. Methaemoglobin is a form of the oxygen-carrying metalloprotein haemoglobin. The Protocol states that “the polluter should, in principle, bear the cost of pollution”. Wastes from poultry farms, piggeries and slaughterhouses etc. 4.0 mg/L is considered to be highly polluted. This process is known as naturalÂ, Similar nutrient enrichment of lakes at an accelerated rate is caused by human activities and the consequent ageing phenomenon is known asÂ, On the basis of their nutrient content, lakes are categorized as, A vast majority of lakes in India are either, Eutrophic water body: it is a body of water rich in nutrients and so supporting a dense plant population, the decomposition of which kills animal life by, Eutrophication is the response to the addition of nutrients such asÂ, Phytoplankton (algae and blue-green bacteria) thrive on the excess nutrients and their population explosion covers almost entire surface layer.

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