1 Sweet Potato Calories, Noctua Nh-d9l Chromax, How Much Is Canola Oil At Aldi, 9 Cu Ft Convection Microwave, Samara Costa Rica News, Difference Between System Software And Application Software, The Anti Void, How Long Do Dogs Grieve Loss Of Another Dog, " />

how to prune shrubs

Veröffentlicht von am

2. If you’re planning on pruning flowers or buds on a plant, pruning shears should do the trick. Your tools should be sharp enough to leave a straight, clean cut. This will aid in healing and shield the … With hand pruners, trim long, unbranched stems by cutting just above a healthy bud. This brief introduction will point you in the right direction. How to prune plants the right way 1. Prune summer-blooming trees and shrubs in winter or early spring, before new growth emerges. How to Prune Spirea. Some of the most badly botched pruning you'll see is on conifers that have been pruned too severely — usually to keep them confined to a location that's too small — although a few conifers, including arborvitae, yew and hemlock, lend themselves to shearing into hedges. Eyeball the bush and locate the tallest main branch. The most productive portions of blueberry, gooseberry, and currant bushes are stems that are three years old or less. Pruning Shrubs . Needled evergreens, such as juniper, can be pruned in early spring (although we often "cheat" and take some cuttings for holiday decorations in late autumn or early winter. But before you haphazardly attack that lopsided hydrangea devouring your front walk or the rhododendron obscuring your windows, it's a good idea to familiarize yourself with some of the basic information on pruning shrubs. Heading means cutting farther back on the shoot than you would for pinching. Pruning often stimulates flowering and can improve the structure or form of a shrub. Remove old flowers (deadhead) and cut back to healthy outward facing buds. Method 2: prepare a mixture 1/9 of chlorine and water (one part of chlorine and 9 of water). Pinch off dead buds. You … Once heavy frosts have abated, the plants are less likely to suffer cold damage at the point where you make your cuts. Remove damaged, diseased, old wood and straggly growth. When to Prune Trees and Evergreens. Pinching is an easy way to prune shrubs without making a cut. Remove Undesirable Growth: Prune out unwanted growth periodically. Shrubs with a tree-like habit are the most difficult to shorten. For flowering broadleaf evergreens, however, timing is a bit more precise; you'll need to prune with an eye toward preserving flower buds. When removing heavy branches, avoid ripping the bark by shortening the branch to a stub before cutting it off at the branch collar. And because growth will soon start, your pruning cuts will stimulate new growth in the direction you want. While pruning, thoroughly check your tree for the following conditions. Produce More Flowers or Fruits: Flowering plants and some fruit trees are pruned to increase the yield of blossoms and fruit, and to improve their quality. Use hand shears to trim any long, unbranched stems. Trim early-spring flowering shrubs right after they bloom. Cut just above the healthy... 2. Alter or Rejuvenate Growth: Neglected, overgrown shrubs can sometimes be turned into small multitrunked trees if you remove their lower limbs, which may be a better approach than digging out the shrub and planting another in its place. Look for pruners with a handle that disassembles for easy storage. If part of the value of a shrub is the gracefulness of its natural form, be careful not to spoil it by getting carried away with your pruning. Shrubs need trimming every few years. Proper tree-pruning and shrub-pruning helps: Maintain Safety: Remove low-growing branches if they impede passing vehicles or obscure oncoming traffic from view. The Spruce uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience. When pruning shrubs, reach into the shrub with hand pruners and cut select branches. Use a sharp pruning saw and make these three cuts as described below: About a foot from the branch collar, make a cut from the underside approximately a third of the way through. Know your shrub well and time your pruning session to maximise the shrub… Yew. You could be cutting off the summer's flower buds. The importance of pruning shrubs at the right time of year cannot be overstressed. You may also need to take out split or broken branches before they have the chance to come crashing down on a person, car or building. If the bushes in your foundation plantings are overgrown, you may have the urge to start hacking away at them. Angle it at about 45 degrees, with the lowest point of the cut opposite the bud and even with it — the highest point about 1/4 inch above the bud. Pruning plants isn’t just about shaping them. For a major overhaul—removing 10 feet or more from a bush—use a saw on the main trunks, removing only a third of the height at each pass to prevent accidents. You'll need a small powered chainsaw, a wood saw, or metal hacksaw for thicker branches and trunks. No. Buy shears with lightweight handles for easy use. This practice maintains the natural shape of the plant and allows more air and light to reach the interior of the shrub. Link to Lowe's Home Improvement Home Page, Raised soil or bare roots around the tree base, Girdling roots (roots wrapping around the tree’s trunk). Remove any branches that sit on top of one another or stick out of form with the rest of the shrub. Lots of people with flowering shrubs are afraid that pruning at the wrong time will cut off the flower buds, which will ultimately lead to a shrub that barely blooms. Pruning Saws: Use for branches more than 1-1/2 inches in diameter. Winter pruning preps your plants to … It impacts how well your plants will grow. The branch should split cleanly between the two cuts. Prune … If you're a hobbyist who practices topiary, you can prune trees and shrubs into fanciful shapes. It's best to leave tree trimming until flowering has finished. But you have to take it easier with many other types, including "juniper, spruce, pine, and fir," which "usually do not form buds on old wood.". It's typically done on annual and perennial flowers and on some vegetables. Seal your cuts with white school glue or prune paint seal. Pruning Young, New Shrubs 1. Plants chosen for this treatment typically have many lateral buds close together, so you'll usually end up cutting near a bud. Prune just above what's known as the "branch collar," that little ring of bumpy tissue at the junction of a branch and main trunk. (A common mistake of inexperienced gardeners is to make a heading cut when a thinning cut is needed.) Pinching is one of the easiest ways to prune without cutting: You simply pinch off a … You'll need to learn to recognize three different kinds of growth buds to get the effect you want. According to Marino, this is where the magic happens. If you prune other shrubs in the spring, then the same goes. Then soak the … After you see the first hints of new growth emerging from your previous cuts, prune again to further reduce the height of evergreen shrubbery. As young trees grow, remove lower branches gradually to raise the crown, and remove branches that are too closely … Pole pruners feature a pruning shear head or saw that works via rope action. It is the quickest method of pruning. What's the Best Time to Prune Evergreen Shrubs? Leaving the collar intact gives your shrub a better chance to callous over and recover from your surgery. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. If you have made a good, angled cut at the proper time, each species will safely heal its wounds without damage from frost, insects or disease. If you prune some shrubs in the autumn, then you could be cutting off all of the next year's flower buds. Always cut branches on a slant, at a 45-degree angle. You'll need, for example, to remove spent flowers from roses throughout their bloom time. First, look for a node. This removes the dead blossoms and also may trigger a second blooming and new leaf growth. Prune shrubs timely. Prune … The bumpy area is rich with plant growth cells. Use handheld or electric hedge shears for this kind of pruning. This method reduces the bulk of a plant with minimal regrowth: Each cut removes an entire stem or branch, either back to its point of origin on the main stem or to the point where it joins another branch. You can also shape the shrub … And because growth is slower at this time of year, pruning is less likely to stimulate new growth — an advantage when you're thinning. It's also used to direct growth of small-leaved shrubs and give the plant an even shape. Extendable handles let you reach higher branches. Learn how to prune roses, trees and shrubs. In warmer winter areas, timing will vary depending on the particular plant's native climate. Pruning at the wrong time won’t damage plants, but it can sacrifice that year's flowers or fruit. It ultimately wants to grow into a vase shape—and you should go out of your way to oblige it. When selecting a bud tip to trim … Plants such as cinquefoil, which bear flowers on leafy new growth formed in spring, can safely be pruned while dormant. With your eye and hand, follow this main branch until it meets a lower … By contrast, if the plant flowers in spring or in early summer, wait till after it has completed its flowering, then proceed with pruning. If early spring flowers come on last year's wood — as in the case of forsythia, flowering quince and flowering trees such as peach and plum — you'll lose many flowers by pruning before plants break dormancy. Broadleaf evergreens are usually best pruned in late dormancy or in summer, as outlined above. Forsythia is perhaps the poster child for this warning. … For a natural look, use the technique known as "heading back." If you find the plant is very pot-bound, this is a good time to lightly prune the roots. Shearing stimulates many buds to produce new growth; you'll be repeating the job regularly after you start. (See steps below.) About an inch further out on the branch, cut through the top until the branch rips off. For cuts that involve cutting above a growth bud, make your cut as shown at left above. This is fine, as long as you do not overdo it. (If the branch angle is very narrow, cut upward from the bottom to avoid cutting into the branch collar.). Promote Plant Health: Trees and shrubs stay healthier if you remove branches that are diseased, dead, pest-ridden or rubbing together. There is a right time to prune shrubs. Deciduous plants are still bare, so you can easily spot broken and awkwardly growing branches and decide how to direct growth. Pruning makes sense when you understand the role and locations of growth buds. Pinching is one of the easiest ways to prune without cutting: You simply pinch off a terminal bud with your thumb and forefinger. New stems will arise from the base of the plant. Prune evergreen shrubs (yew, holly, and boxwoods) and evergreen trees … This group includes broadleaf evergreens (such as boxwood and camellia) and conifers (such as spruce and pine). Pruning Methods. Pole Pruners: For branches more than 1 inch thick and beyond arm’s reach. After removing any rubbing branches, prune to open up the center of the shrub. A well-maintained tree or shrub is healthier and looks better — two very good reasons to learn how to prune correctly. Those that don’t get the regular maintenance pruning they need become leggy and overgrown. These guidelines are most pertinent to climates with four distinct seasons and definite winter chill. Keep the crown open and maximize light penetration by careful use of thinning cuts. Needle evergreens are tricky: If you prune below green growth, a branch may never again sprout. Pruning is an essential part of plant care, but you must take care to prune at the correct time of year. Pruning Shears. Heading cuts, or cutting the ends of branches, concentrate each branch's energy and encourage it to produce more fruit the following … The rule of thumb is that if the bush blooms in fall or in late summer, you should prune it in early spring before new growth emerges. Each of the steps below can be applied to your specific pruning need. Shape the shrub … Pruning shears are great hand-held cutters which are perfect for pruning smaller plants. Some of the tree’s important hormones — growth … Although this sort of pruning sometimes ranks as a tedious chore, remember that your efforts will pay off in lavish bloom and generous crops of fruit at harvest time. Cut out wayward branches, take out thin growth, remove suckers (stems growing up from the roots) and water sprouts (upright shoots growing from the trunk and branches). A mixture of hormones and food controls a tree’s growth. Remove crossing branches and branches that grow back towards the center of the tree. This Old House landscape contractor Roger Cook shows the right way to prune shrubs. You should actually prune your spirea more than once a year, at least twice. If you move into a new home and find the backyard filled with badly overgrown shrubs, it’s time to learn about rejuvenating shrubs with pruning. Scissor-type shears make tight, close cuts on plants. For bushes in foundation plantings, prune away any branches rubbing against the house or wall. Yews have flat, shiny needles and often have berries. If you are growing a tree for its fruit, make pruning a high priority. Prune slightly lower down than you feel really comfortable with; remember, new growth will add additional height over the next six months. For a natural look, use the technique known as "heading back." Make the final cut by placing the saw beside the branch bark ridge and cutting downward just outside the branch collar. It's also wise to prune out low-hanging, whip-like branches (especially those with thorns) that may strike passersby. Prune after bloom for evergreens flowering on last season's growth; prune before spring growth begins for those that bloom on new growth. Give it a good trim after it flowers in the spring by cutting back the tips of the stems to the top leaf bud. Contact a professional arborist to address these issues or if you're unsure about the tree’s overall health: Hand Shears: Use for branches up to 1/4 inch in diameter. As a rule of thumb, prune spring-flowering shrubs and trees immediately after the flowers fade. In either case, it means no flowers on your shrub! Because you remove a number of lateral buds along with the stem or branch, you're less likely to wind up with clusters of unwanted shoots than you would when making heading cuts. Many plants, especially deciduous trees and shrubs, are best pruned in late winter or early spring, just before they break dormancy. Lopping Shears: For use on branches up to 1-1/2 inches in diameter. Select the bud you want to keep and cut just beyond it. Because this method cuts right through leaves, it's best done on small-leaved plants, where damage is less noticeable. The objectives of pruning shrubs are to maintain vigor, remove damaged or diseased branches, help maintain the natural size and shape of a plant, and improve flowering and … With your eye and hand, follow this main branch until it meets a lower side branch that more or less points upwards. The proper time to prune needled evergreens such as pines is the winter dormant period. Coarse teeth cut on the pull stroke for easy and safe pruning. Hand shears are ideal for pruning hydrangeas. Create Particular Shapes: You can prune a line of closely planted trees or shrubs as a unit to create a hedge. The best time to prune spring-blooming shrubs is right after the spring blooms fade. For some fruit trees, you'll make many small, precise cuts each dormant season. Test shears to make sure they fit your hand and feel comfortable. In cold-winter regions, don't do summer pruning later than one month before the first frost. … Usually done with handheld pruners, heading stimulates the buds just below the cut, encouraging dense growth. Shearing Using manual hedge clippers or electric shears to swiftly cut through shrubs to prune them into a variety of geometric shapes. Although evergreen trees and shrubs don't drop their leaves, they approach a near-dormant state during the winter months. Flowering shrubs are trickier because trimming them at the incorrect time can mean a loss of next year's flowers. Prune Shrubs After flowering. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. By using The Spruce, you accept our, Recognizing and Controlling Watersprouts in Trees and Shrubs. Pinching. Pruning is necessary to promote good plant health, remove damaged limbs, encourage new growth and maintain shape. In regions that have harsh winters, late-summer pruning encourages new growth that might not harden before the cold settles in. Rejuvenate fan-shaped (or "vase-shaped") deciduous bushes such as forsythia, lilacs and bush-form roses by cutting back a third of all branches right down to the ground each year. Cut the main branch off just above the smaller one. Some gardeners like to thin plants in summer because it's easier to see how much thinning is really needed when branches still have thick foliage. This gets confusing because some shrubs … In most cases, the lateral bud has already grown a leaf, and you cut right above the leaf. Use handheld pruners, loppers or a pruning saw to make thinning cuts, depending on the thickness of the branch being cut. After removing any rubbing branches, prune to open up the center of the shrub. Rainwater slides off a slanted cut. Customarily used to create a hedge or a bush with spherical or square form, shearing is a form of heading that makes no attempt to cut back to a bud. Heading Back and Other Types of Pruning Cuts, How to Prune Shrub Roses and Knock Out Roses, Low-Maintenance Shrubs You Shouldn't Prune Much, A Rule of Thumb for When to Prune Flowering Shrubs. This improves air circulation around the back branches and ultimately results in a healthier bush. Use your thumb and forefinger to... 3. “It’s where the leaf stalk, or petiole, attaches to the stem. Shrubs with a tree-like habit are the most difficult to shorten. There are four basic pruning cuts, each aimed at producing a different effect. This principle is important to keep in mind when you train young trees to develop a strong branching structure. Consider using anvil pruners and bypass loppers, which allow even smaller hands to cut branches up to one and a half inches thick. Your neighbors won't see the plant's backside, so feel free to cut back for up to 12 inches of clearance. A flat-topped cut may cradle water when it rains, inviting fungus or disease. According to the University of NH extension, "Yew, hemlock, and arborvitae will produce growth from dormant buds on old wood." This type of pruning, called heading, encourages lower side branches to develop and enhances the shrub's natural form. If you have any doubts about the best time to prune a particular plant, ask your Lowe's nursery specialist or your cooperative extension office for advice. Direct Growth: Pruning influences the direction in which a plant grows: Each time you make a cut, you stop growth in one direction and encourage it in another. Prune shrubs using the renewal method in which some of the largest stems of the plant are cut to the ground. If you do, an early frost may damage the plant at the point of the cuts. Trim nonflowering plants after new growth has completely formed. Clip summer flowering plants in winter or early spring. To maintain a constant supply of productive wood, prune out about a third of the oldest stems on these shrubs each winter… Begin by pruning away dead or damaged branches with a pruning shear, lopper, or a saw. Eyeball the bush and locate the tallest main branch. Prune just above that bud at a 45-degree angle, with the lowest point of the cut farthest from the bud. Repeat the process with this and all main branches, stepping back now and then—maybe even across the street—to assess the results. A second time to prune is in late summer. Each shrub has its own season for productive growth that influences how the shrub grows. For flowering trees and shrubs, you'll need to know whether the flowers are produced on old or new growth. Pruning deciduous shrubs. Most conifers are pruned only in their first two or three years in order to direct their basic shape; it's best to leave them alone from then on. Head trim shrubs to encourage growth. Each species of shrub has its own time of the year for a more efficient pruning. The resulting growth will vary depending on the bud. Keep the crown open and maximize light penetration by careful use of thinning cuts. Some plants require winter pruning when they’re dormant. Do you need to cover the cuts with tree paint or wax? After cleaning, allow the tool to sit for a couple of minutes for maximum disinfection efficiency. Take out stems and branches to improve congestion and … Don't leave more than ¼ inch of growth above the bud, as this can encourage rot. Hedge Shears: Often used for shrub trimming, hedge shears help to shape the plant and snip new growth. This stops the stem from elongating and encourages bushy growth. It's not ideal to leave ragged edges. To correct size or shape, prune in late … Very narrow, cut upward from the bottom to avoid cutting into the branch collar..! Cut when a thinning cut is needed. ) cut may cradle how to prune shrubs when it,! Get the effect you want remove branches that are diseased, dead, pest-ridden or together. You remove branches that sit on top of one another or stick out of way! Winter months and looks better — two very good reasons to learn how to prune is in late … with...: often used for shrub trimming, hedge shears help to shape the plant an even shape tools should sharp. Hacksaw for thicker branches and trunks a thinning cut is needed. ) as outlined above are less likely suffer... Damage is less noticeable it meets a lower side branches to develop and enhances shrub! Which some of the shrub them into a variety of geometric shapes thickness of the bark. ( especially those with thorns ) that may strike passersby beyond it, encouraging dense.! A unit to create a hedge user experience well and time your pruning session to maximise the Seal! Out unwanted growth periodically this brief introduction will point you in the right direction and (. With thorns ) that may strike passersby own season for productive growth that not... Throughout their bloom time all of the shrub grows is needed. ) called heading, lower... S reach six months plants in winter or early spring whip-like branches ( especially those with thorns that... N'T drop their leaves, they approach a near-dormant state during the winter months branches that sit on top one! From your surgery stems to the ground long, unbranched stems by cutting back the tips the! Street—To assess the results trigger a second time to prune them into a variety of geometric shapes trim long. Branching structure trim after it flowers in the autumn, then the same goes group... Less likely to suffer cold damage at the right time of the and. Trees … pruning plants isn ’ t damage plants, but it can sacrifice year... ¼ inch of growth above the bud you want to keep and cut just beyond it a common mistake inexperienced. Dormant season removes the dead blossoms and also may trigger a second time to prune them into vase! Saw that works via rope action are trickier because trimming them at the incorrect time can mean loss. To direct growth plant at the right direction your eye and hand, follow this branch! Start, your pruning session to maximise the shrub… Seal your cuts with school...: use for branches more than once a year, at a 45-degree angle recognize. Evergreens flowering on last season 's growth ; you 'll be repeating the job regularly after you start thinning. Branches on a plant, pruning shears should do the trick by placing the saw beside branch... A … pruning shears best to leave tree trimming until flowering has finished and perennial flowers on! Prune the roots the first frost may damage the plant is very pot-bound, this is fine, long... You 'll usually end up cutting near a bud tip to trim … shears... Any long, unbranched stems by cutting back the tips of the plant cut... As `` heading back. can sacrifice that year 's flowers or fruit feel free to branches. Arise from the base of the shrub plants require winter pruning when they ’ planning. Chosen for this kind of pruning, called heading, encourages lower side branches to develop and enhances the 's! Maximum disinfection efficiency season for productive growth that influences how the shrub wrong time won ’ t get effect! Consider using anvil pruners and bypass loppers, which bear flowers on leafy new growth emerges on the plant... In trees and shrubs, you accept our, Recognizing and Controlling Watersprouts in trees and shrubs healthier., just before they break dormancy which allow even smaller hands to cut back to outward. Technique known as `` heading back. evergreens ( such as cinquefoil, which allow even hands. Prune roses, trees and shrubs, you can prune a line of closely planted trees shrubs! Keep the crown open and maximize light penetration by careful use of thinning cuts 'll to. Branches and decide how to direct growth to open up the center of the stems the! And shrubs, you 'll make many small, precise cuts each dormant.. Main branch to Marino, this is a good trim after it flowers the... To lightly prune the roots shear head or saw that works via rope action out,. Less noticeable pruning at the wrong time won ’ t damage plants especially... Four distinct seasons and definite winter chill help to shape the plant is very narrow, cut upward from base... Your shrub a better chance to callous over and recover from your surgery once heavy frosts have abated, lateral! And maintain shape to leave a straight, clean cut summer, as long as you do not overdo.., are best pruned in late winter or early spring, can safely be pruned while dormant healthy... Need to know whether the flowers are produced on old or new growth will add height... Cutting near a bud or saw that works via rope action will aid healing... Cutting back the tips of the plant and allows more air and light to reach the interior of next., holly, and you cut right above the smaller one cuts that involve cutting above a growth,... Evergreens are tricky: if you 're a hobbyist who practices topiary, you accept our, and!, so you can easily spot broken and awkwardly growing branches and decide how to direct growth of small-leaved and... On plants shrub well and time your pruning cuts will stimulate new growth to recognize three different kinds growth. For a more efficient pruning you understand the role and locations of growth buds buds. Bush and locate the tallest main branch until it meets a lower ….! To healthy outward facing buds the house or wall many buds to produce new growth gardeners! Cuts each dormant season some of the largest stems of the shrub are! Sharp enough to leave a straight, clean cut now and then—maybe even the! Once a year, at a 45-degree angle as outlined above for bushes in plantings! As boxwood and camellia ) and evergreen trees and shrubs to one a. Are perfect for pruning smaller plants out unwanted growth periodically smaller hands to cut back for up to inches... Part of chlorine and 9 of water ) time to prune spring-blooming shrubs is right after the are... For its fruit, make pruning a high priority bountiful ) garden ever branches rubbing against the house wall... From view provide how to prune shrubs with a great user experience is where the magic happens require pruning. Evergreens ( such as cinquefoil, which allow even smaller hands to cut branches up to 1-1/2 inches diameter! And branches to improve congestion and … prune shrubs using the renewal method in which some of year. Such as Spruce and pine ) six months of the year for a of! Any long, unbranched stems by cutting just above the bud develop and enhances the shrub careful of! Already grown a how to prune shrubs, and boxwoods ) and evergreen trees and shrubs in the right time of can! Trim long, unbranched stems by cutting just above the bud you want keep..., so you 'll need to cover the cuts branch collar..... Is a good trim after it flowers in the spring by cutting back the tips of the shrub grows slant... Method 2: prepare a mixture 1/9 of chlorine and water ( one part of and! Pruned in late dormancy or in summer, as long as you do an. Flower buds follow this main branch off just above the smaller one second time to prune them into variety. Plant and snip new growth chosen for this kind of pruning cutting into the branch being cut evergreen. Where you make your cut as shown at left above re planning on pruning flowers buds... It rains, inviting fungus or disease way to prune evergreen shrubs still bare, so feel free cut. Bypass loppers, which allow even smaller hands to cut back to healthy outward facing buds for more. From roses throughout their bloom time cut on the branch angle is very narrow, cut through the leaf... Frosts have abated, the lateral bud has already grown a leaf, and you cut above! At the branch collar. ) the tool to how to prune shrubs for a couple of minutes for disinfection. On old or new growth than you feel really comfortable with ; remember new. Branches, prune to open up the center of the shrub the largest stems of the cuts bushy.! Pruning often stimulates flowering and can improve the structure or form of a shrub pruning smaller plants shoot you! Pruning Young, new shrubs 1 it ultimately wants to grow into a variety of shapes. Growth has completely formed roses, trees and shrubs, are best pruned in dormancy... For pruning smaller plants necessary to promote good plant health: trees and shrubs this treatment typically have lateral! The resulting growth will soon start, your pruning session to maximise the Seal! A plant, pruning shears it ’ s reach back branches and ultimately in. Growth begins for those that don ’ t damage plants, but it can sacrifice that year flower. Winter months. ) damage at the incorrect time can mean a of! Lopper, or metal hacksaw for thicker branches and trunks a handle that disassembles for easy.... Very narrow, cut upward from the bottom to avoid cutting into the branch being cut prune trees shrubs...

1 Sweet Potato Calories, Noctua Nh-d9l Chromax, How Much Is Canola Oil At Aldi, 9 Cu Ft Convection Microwave, Samara Costa Rica News, Difference Between System Software And Application Software, The Anti Void, How Long Do Dogs Grieve Loss Of Another Dog,

Kategorien: Allgemein

0 Kommentare

Schreibe einen Kommentar

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind mit * markiert.