automatic question generation from paragraph
The Transformer (Vaswani et al., 2017) is a recently proposed neural architecture designed to address some deficiencies of RNNs. The text file is read using a Python package called textblob. See my Quora answers to: * Can computers make questions? We take a subset of MS MARCO v1.1 dataset containing questions that are answerable from atleast one paragraph. Learning to ask: Neural question generation for reading for question generation from text. Work fast with our official CLI. The sentence encoder transformer maps an input sequence of word representations x=(x0,⋯,xn) to a sequence of continuous sentence representations r=(r0,⋯,rn). Thus the continued investigation of hierarchical Transformer is a promising research avenue. Furthermore, we can produce a fixed-dimensional representation for a sentence as a function of ri, e.g., by summing (or averaging) its contextual word representations, or concatenating the contextual representations of its <\textscBOS> and <\textscEOS> tokens. Automatic question generation (QG) is the task of generating meaningful questions from text. We split the SQuAD train set by the ratio 90%-10% into train and dev set and take SQuAD dev set as our test set for evaluation. Results demonstrate the hierarchical representations to be overall much more effective than their flat counterparts. The sentence which gets parsed successfully generates a question sentence. The current state-of-the-art question generation model uses language modeling with different pretraining objectives. Stroudsburg, PA : ACL , pp. 2018. bi=softmax(qwKiw/d). 2018. pairs. Based on a set of 90 predefined interaction rules, we check the coarse classes according to the word to word interaction. HierSeq2Seq + AE is the hierarchical BiLSTM model with a BiLSTM sentence encoder, a BiLSTM paragraph encoder and an LSTM decoder conditioned on encoded answer. Each paragraph is further broken down into sentences using the function parse(string): We compare QG results of our hierarchical LSTM and hierarchical Transformer with their flat counterparts. We searched the Internet for a good sentence rephraser, and altought we found many, none of it could rephrase paragraphs correctly. Ke Tran, Arianna Bisazza, and Christof Monz. Millions of developers and companies build, ship, and maintain their software on GitHub — the largest and most advanced development platform in the world. Matthew Lynch Editor of The Edvocate and The Tech Edvocate. If you’re in a big hurry and are running out of options due to a deadline. On the other hand, template based methods (Ali et al., 2010) use generic templates/slot fillers to generate questions. We performed human evaluation to further analyze quality of questions generated by all the models. And each sentence is passed as string to function genQuestion(line): These are the part-of-speech tags which is used in this demo. We use essential cookies to perform essential website functions, e.g. (2018) contrast recurrent and non-recurrent architectures on their effectiveness in capturing the hierarchical structure. Interestingly, human evaluation results, as tabulated in Table 3 and Table 4, demonstrate that the hierarchical Transformer model TransSeq2Seq + AE outperforms all the other models on both datasets in both syntactic and semantic correctness. We also present attention mechanisms for dynamically incorporating contextual information in the hierarchical paragraph encoders and experimentally validate their effectiveness. This module attempts to automati-cally generate the most relevant as well as syntac-tically and semantically correct questions around Ref: Alphabetical list of part-of-speech tags used in the Penn Treebank Project. Natural Language Processing (NLP): Automatic generation of questions and answers from Wikipedia ... 27:33. A few years ago we were wondering - is there a good paraphrasing website with an automatic paraphrasing tool online? The decoder is further conditioned on the provided (candidate) answer to generate relevant questions. Most of the work in question generation takes sentences as input (Du and Cardie, 2018; Kumar et al., 2018; Song et al., 2018; Kumar et al., 2019). To attend to the hierarchical paragraph representation, we replace the multi-head attention mechanism (to the source) in Transformer by introducing a new multi-head hierarchical attention module MHATT(qs,Ks,qw,Kw,Vw) where qs is the sentence-level query vector, qw is the word level query vector, Ks is the key matrix for the sentences of the paragraph, Kw is the key matrix for the words of the paragraph, and Vw is the value matrix fr the words of the paragraph. However, due to their ineffectiveness in dealing with long sequences, paragraph-level question generation remains a challenging problem for these models. While the introduction of the attention mechanism benefits the hierarchical BiLSTM model, the hierarchical Transformer, with its inherent attention and positional encoding mechanisms also performs better than flat transformer model. Automatic question generation by using NLP. The current state-of-the-art question generation model uses language modeling with different pretraining objectives. In this paper, we propose and study two hierarchical models for the task of question generation from paragraphs. About. Automatic gap-fill question generation from text books. In this paper, we propose and study two hierarchical models for the task of question generation from paragraphs. The selective sentence level attention (ast) is computed as: ast=Sparsemax([uwti]Ki=1), where, K is the number of sentences, usti=vTstanh(Ws[gi,dt]). We analyse the effectiveness of these models for the task of automatic question generation from paragraph. This representation is the output of the last encoder block in the case of Transformer, and the last hidden state in the case of BiLSTM. We can also activate the verbose mode by -v argument to further understand the question generation process. As of 2019, Question generation from text has become possible. download the GitHub extension for Visual Studio. Ph.D. thesis, Carnegie Mellon University. Linfeng Song, Zhiguo Wang, Wael Hamza, Yue Zhang, and Daniel Gildea. This Automatic Gap-Fill Question Generation system creates multiple choice, fill-in-the-blank questions from text corpora. Recently, Zhao et al. In reality, however, it often requires the whole paragraph as context in order to generate high quality questions. Figure 1). Tran et al. As humans, when reading a paragraph, we look for important sentences first and then important keywords in those sentences to find a concept around which a question can be generated. Secondly, it computes an attention vector for the words of each sentence: Existing question generation methods are typically based on recurrent neural networks (RNN), such as bi-directional LSTM. 56–64 (2011) Google Scholar Further, dynamic paragraph-level contextual information in the BiLSTM-HPE is incorporated via both word- and sentence-level selective attention. On the MS MARCO dataset, the two LSTM-based models outperform the two Transformer-based models. The results demonstrate the overall effectiveness of the hierarchical models over their flat counterparts. 2017. Encoder-decoder attention layer of decoder takes the key Kencdec and value Vencdec . Decoder stack will output a float vector, we can feed this float vector to a linear followed softmax layer to get probability for generating target word. Similarly, Song et al. Give credit where it’s due by listing out the positive aspects of a paper before getting into which changes should be made. That is, our model identifies firstly the relevance of the sentences, and then the relevance of the words within the sentences. We perform extensive experimental evaluation on the SQuAD and MS MARCO datasets using standard metrics. Neural network based methods represent the state-of-the-art for automatic question generation. We take an entire paragraph in each train/test instance as input in all our experiments. Question generation is the most important part of the teaching-learning process. In Arikiturri , they use a corpus of words and then choose the most relevant words in a given passage to ask questions from. Learn more. Research paper, code implementation and pre-trained model are available to download on the Paperwithcode website link. In the Appendix, in Section B, we present several examples that illustrate the effectiveness of our Hierarchical models. * How do I generate questions from corpus or comprehensions using NLP concepts? Husam Ali, Yllias Chali, and Sadid A Hasan. structure. 2018. 2016. Vishwajeet Kumar, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, and Yuan-Fang Li. Let us assume that the question decoder needs to attend to the source paragraph during the generation process. Automating reading comprehension by generating question and answer Pranav Rajpurkar, Jian Zhang, Konstantin Lopyrev, and Percy Liang. phrase extraction is a vital step to allow automatic question generation to scale beyond datasets with predeﬁned answers to real-world education applications. 2018. A dictionary is created called bucket and the part-of-speech tags are added to it. questiongeneration.org > Question Generation is the task of automatically generating questions from various inputs such as raw text, database, or semantic representation. It uses complex AI algorithms to generate questions. Equipped with different enhancements such as the attention, copy and coverage mechanisms, RNN-based models (Du et al., 2017; Kumar et al., 2018; Song et al., 2018) achieve good results on sentence-level question generation. We performed all our experiments on the publicly available SQuAD (Rajpurkar et al., 2016) and MS MARCO (Nguyen et al., 2016) datasets. Effective approaches to attention-based neural machine translation. MS MARCO contains passages that are retrieved from web documents and the questions are anonimized versions of BING queries. Specifically, the Transformer is based on the (multi-head) attention mechanism, completely discarding recurrence in RNNs. Do try Quillionz for free. Searching the databases and AIED resulted in 2,012 papers and we checked 974.Footnote 7 The difference is due to ACM which provided 1,265 results and we only checked the first 200 results (sorted by relevance) because we found that subsequent results became irrelevant. Existing eﬀorts at AQG have been limited to short answer lengths of up to two or three sentences. The final context (ct) based on hierarchical selective attention is computed as: ct=∑iasti∑j¯¯¯awti,jri,j, where ¯¯¯awti,j is the word attention score obtained from awt corresponding to jth word of the ith sentence. Our main contributions are as follows: We present two hierarchical models for encoding the paragraph based on its structure. At the lower level, the encoder first encodes words and produces a sentence-level representation. ht=\textscWordEnc (ht−1,[et,fwt]), where et represents the GLoVE (Pennington et al., 2014) embedded representation of word (xi,j) at time step t and fwt is the embedded BIO feature for answer encoding. The final representation r from last layer of decoder is fed to the linear followed by softmax layer for calculating output probabilities. gated self-attention networks. Automatic question generation (AQG) has broad applicability in domains such as tutoring systems, conversational agents, healthcare literacy, and information re-trieval. Yes you can. The goal of Question Generation is to generate a valid and fluent question according to a given passage and the target answer. This program uses a small list of combinations. Automatic Factual Question Generation from Text Michael Heilman CMU-LTI-11-004 Language Technologies Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 www.lti.cs.cmu.edu Thesis Committee: Vincent Aleven, Carnegie Mellon University William W. Cohen, Carnegie Mellon University A question type driven framework to diversify visual question Let us denote the i-th sentence in the paragraph by xi, where xi,j denotes the j-th word of the sentence. This design choice allows the Transformer to effectively attend to different parts of a given sequence. Also Transformer is relatively much faster to train and test than RNNs. Virtualenv recommended pip install -r requirements.txt python -m textblob.download_corporapython3 quest.py file.txt Use -voption to activate verbose python3 quest.py file.txt -v You can also try inputing any text file. Question Generation can be used in many scenarios, such as automatic tutoring systems, improving the performance of Question Answering models and enabling chatbots to lead a conversation. r is fed as input to the next encoder layers. In Computer-Aided Generation of Multiple-Choice Tests, the authors picked the key nouns in the paragraph and and then use a regular expression to generate the question. Run it on Google Chrome for better performance. The word level attention (awt) is computed as: awt=Softmax([uwti]Mi=1), where M is the number of words, and uwti=vTwtanh(Ww[hi,dt]) and dt is the decoder hidden state at time step t. We calculate sentence representation (~si) using word level encoder’s hidden states as: ~si=1|xi|∑jri,j, where ri,j is the word encoder hidden state representation of the jth word of the ith sentence. We the concatenate forward and backward hidden states of the BiLSTM encoder to obtain the final hidden state representation (ht) at time step t. Representation (ht) is calculated as: Keep your question short and to the point. The methodology employed in these modules has been described next. python -m textblob.download_corpora HierTransSeq2Seq + AE is the hierarchical Transformer model with a Transformer sentence encoder, a Transformer paragraph encoder followed by a Transformer decoder conditioned on answer encoded. Compared to the flat LSTM and Transformer models, their respective hierarchical counterparts always perform better on both the SQuAD and MS MARCO datasets. This architecture is agnostic to the type of encoder, so we base our hierarchical architectures on BiLSTM and Transformers. With more question answering (QA) datasets like ... paragraph, end of paragraph and end of question respectively, the task of question generation is to maximize the likelihood of Qgiven Pand s a. Better yet, a reword a paragraph generator may also offer their goods in a number of different ways. However, Transformer, as a non-recurrent model, can be more effective than the recurrent model because it has full access to the sequence history. Question Generation from Paragraphs: A Tale of Two Hierarchical Models Vishwajeet Kumar, Raktim Chaki, Sai Teja Talluri, Ganesh Ramakrishnan, Yuan-Fang Li, Gholamreza Haffari (Submitted on 8 Nov 2019) Automatic question generation from paragraphs is an important and challenging problem, particularly due to the long context from paragraphs. 2018. To the best of our knowledge this is the only model that is designed to support paragraph-level QG and outperforms other models on the SQuAD dataset (Rajpurkar et al., 2016). Zhao et al. Putting the horse before the cart: A generator-evaluator framework We can use pre-tagged bag of words to improve part-of-speech tags. Rouge: A package for automatic evaluation of summaries. Question generation (QG) has recently attracted significant interests in the natural language processing (NLP) (Du et al., 2017; Kumar et al., 2018; Song et al., 2018; Kumar et al., 2019) and computer vision (CV) (Li et al., 2018; Fan et al., 2018) communities. Kishore Papineni, Salim Roukos, Todd Ward, and Wei-Jing Zhu. If nothing happens, download GitHub Desktop and try again. This results in a hierarchical attention module (HATT) and its multi-head extension (MHATT), which replace the attention mechanism to the source in the Transformer decoder. The better we are at sharing our knowledge with each other, the faster we move forward. For evaluating our question generation model we report the standard metrics, viz., BLEU (Papineni et al., 2002) and ROUGE-L(Lin, 2004). We use optional third-party analytics cookies to understand how you use GitHub.com so we can build better products. The matrices for the sentence-level key Ks and word-level key Kw are created using the output. We analyzed quality of questions generated on a) syntactic correctness b) semantic correctness and c) relevance to the given paragraph. The context vector ct is fed to the decoder at time step t along with embedded representation of the previous output. Question Answering systems have many use cases like automatically responding to a customer’s query by reading through the company’s documents and finding a perfect answer.. It is already answered, but I want to give you some more opinion. We use optional third-party analytics cookies to understand how you use GitHub.com so we can build better products. they're used to log you in. Visual question generation as dual task of visual question answering. (2018) recently proposed a Seq2Seq model for paragraph-level question generation, where they employ a maxout pointer mechanism with a gated self-attention encoder. 2 Bl st ak, M.: Automatic Question Generation Based on Sentence Structure Analysis rst question generation dataset and participants of this event have competed in two tasks: question generation from sentences and question generation from paragraph. a=softmax(qsKs/d). The main challenges in paragraph-level QG stem from the larger context that the model needs to assimilate in order to generate relevant questions of high quality. At the higher level, the encoder aggregates the sentence-level representations and learns a paragraph-level representation. generation. Automatic Factual Question Generation from Text Michael Heilman CMU-LTI-11-004 Language Technologies Institute School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 www.lti.cs.cmu.edu Thesis Committee: Vincent Aleven, Carnegie Mellon University William W. Cohen, Carnegie Mellon University Learn more. Question Generation (QG) and Question Answering (QA) are key challenges facing systems that interact with natural languages. To be able to effectively describe these modules, we will benefit first from a description of the decoder (Section 3.3.2). Aidan N Gomez, Łukasz Kaiser, and Illia Polosukhin. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Workshop on Innovative Use of NLP for Building Educational Applications, pp. For example: Tom ate an orange at 7 pm Figure 1). Learn more, We use analytics cookies to understand how you use our websites so we can make them better, e.g. 2019. Image from Pixabay and Stylized by AiArtist Chrome Plugin (Built by me). In this second option (c.f. Question generation from text is a Natural Language Generation task of vital importance for self-directed learning. One straightforward extension to such a model would be to reflect the structure of a paragraph in the design of the encoder. 2016. The hierarchical models for both Transformer and BiLSTM clearly outperforms their flat counterparts on all metrics in almost all cases. However, these texts don't come with the review questions which are crucial in reinforcing one's concept and crafting them themselves can be extremely time-consuming for both teachers as well student. We employ the BiLSTM (Bidirectional LSTM) as both, the word as well as the sentence level encoders. No matter what essay topic you have been given, our essay generator will be able to complete your essay without any hassle. Qualitatively, our hierarchical models also exhibit better capability of generating fluent and relevant questions. The potential benefits of using automated systems to generate questions helps reduce the dependency on humans to generate questions and other needs associated with systems interacting with natural languages. Qualitatively, our hierarchical models are able to generate fluent and relevant questions. Automatic question generation from paragraphs is an important and challenging problem, particularly due to the long context from paragraphs. Subsequently, we employ a unidirectional LSTM unit as our decoder, that generates the target question one word at a time, conditioned on (i) all the words generated in the previous time steps and (ii) on the encoded answer. This set was further reduced to 36 papers after reading the full text of the papers. Xinya Du, Junru Shao, and Claire Cardie. Ms marco: A human generated machine reading comprehension dataset. The decoder stack is similar to encoder stack except that it has an additional sub layer (encoder-decoder attention layer) which learn multi-head self attention over the output of the paragraph encoder. We proposed two hierarchical models for the challenging task of question generation from paragraphs, one of which is based on a hierarchical BiLSTM model and the other is a novel hierarchical Transformer architecture. Figure 2), we make use of a Transformer decoder to generate the target question, one token at a time, from left to right. Thang Luong, Hieu Quang Pham, and Christopher D. Manning. Copy full folder in your web directory. On the MS MARCO dataset, we observe the best consistent performance using the hierarchical BiLSTM models on all automatic evaluation metrics. For multiple heads, the multihead attention z=Multihead(Qw,Kw,Vw) is calculated as: where hi=Attention(QwWQi,KwWKi,VwWVi), WQi∈Rdmodel×dk, WKi∈Rdmodel×dk , WVi∈Rdmodel×dv, WO∈Rhdv×dmodel, dk=dv=dmodel/h=64. Lastly, the context vector is computed using the word values of their attention weights based on their sentence-level and word-level attentions: Attention in MHATT module is calculated as: Where Attention(Qw,Vw,Kw) is reformulation of scaled dot product attention of (Vaswani et al., 2017). In the case of the transformer, the sentence representation is combined with its positional embedding to take the ordering of the paragraph sentences into account.
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